What is a memory? Types of human memory
Memory is the most important component of our personality. She is a link between our past, present and future. Without the possibility of memorizing evolution, it would probably stood in place. For a modern person in the century of a large flow of information, it is extremely important to have good memory in order to keep up with the race. The load on our natural "hard disk" grows with every day.
What is human memory?
Language and memory are closely connected. The ability to memorize people is not congenital. It develops when we learn to describe the world. We have practically no memories of the first years of life precisely because we did not know how to speak. Then, for years to 3-5, the child begins to speak proposals and describes events from life, thereby fixing them in memory.
In adolescence, the awareness of himself comes to man. He answers his own question "Who am I?" And the memories of these years is the strongest and bright. Then the recent events of life is very difficult to remember. Why is this happening?
There is a theory that 15-25 years is the last period of formation. Personality . At this time we switch attention to other things, in addition to the family. Hormonal changes occur, the formation of the brain, new neural connections are formed, many of them work effectively in the frontal frontal share. This part of the brain is responsible for the awareness of himself. As well as in these sites, information is accumulated, which becomes memories. Maybe this is the reason that we remember the teenage period of our life very well even in adulthood.
Memory types by memorization method.
The memory of a person can be divided into several types. Fig.
So, in order:
1 block. Memorization.
* Shaped memory . Information that is stored by creating some images based on the data obtained by our senses. All that we see, hear, touches to the touch, feel taste receptors and smell, is converted into images and remains in memory in this form.
* Verbal memory - That's all we get with the help of words and logic. Only a person has this species. All information obtained verbally is consciously analyzed and classified for further use.
* Emotional memory .The feelings experienced by man are imprinted in this "department." All positive or negative emotions are preserved, and in the future, remembering these moments of life, a person can again experience the same sensations.
* Motor (Motor) Memory . All that is associated with the movement is remembered by motor memory. Riding a bike, the ability to swim, all that we do "on the machine", having learned this one day, remains in our muscle memory.
2 block. Memorification method.
* Arbitrary memory . In this case, a person remembers the necessary information specifically, effort of will. For example, by repetition.
* Involuntary memory . In the process of life, we remember not only what we need, but also other processes. Especially if these data comply with our interests and preferences. For example, after the New Year's corporate, someone will remember the apparels of employees, someone delicious dishes, and others will save competitive games in memory. Everyone involuntarily takes in his memory what personally it was interesting to him.
3 block. Memorization time.
* Short-term memory . Used to solve problems "standing on the agenda." With its help, a person handles a huge amount of information, but very quickly forgets it. Immediately, as soon as the need disappears. The natural "fuse" is triggered, so that the brain does not "exploded."
* Long term memory . This species is determined by a long storage period. All accumulated knowledge is structured, grouped and used for months, years or all life.
* Intermediate memory . This is a cross between long-term and short-term. During the day, the brain collects everything that I learned, and in the process of night sleep produces sorting - something is cut off, and something is laid in a long-term "safe".
* RAM Need to perform a specific definite action.
* Sensory memory The shortest. Stores the received information from the senses for a fraction of seconds. For example, after closing the eye, the picture seen by the latter does not disappear immediately. Probably, thanks to this type of memory, we do not notice the blinking of our eyes.
One interesting fact about memory:
This article did not fit everything that I wanted to tell about the memory of a person, so in the following publications I will answer questions about Why the memory worsens и How to develop it .
P.S. Memory is the key and castle at the same time from our personality.
And Happy New Year to all!
Human memory, its meaning, types of memory and their features. Definition. Communication of memory and mental processes. Distortion of memory. Memory laws.
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My name is Vlad Korero! I'm 45 years old. Professional negotiator, coach and negotiating consultant. Clinical psychologist. Built a career in sales with "0" to the general director of a large trading wholesale business. Since 2014, own consulting business in the field of negotiations. Call! Write! I will help you solve difficulties in communications with other people!
Today there will be a continuation of the chain of articles that reveal the cognitive processes of a person. With previous publications, you can get to know links.
Article "Attention in psychology is this definition?"
Article "Perception in psychology is this determination? Signs of perception. "
The article "Feeling is in psychology, definition, briefly. Types of sensations. "
Article "Speech in psychology is it? Is it in psychology? Concept is in linguistics? "
Article "Thinking is in psychology, definition? Thinking operations is it? "
Block 1. Human memory. What it is?
Memory as a phenomenon is characteristic of all biological creatures. So DNA molecules are huge information arrays and are "storage" memory. Signs are inherited from the cell to the cell, due to which the continuity of generations and the continuation of biological life occurs. The psychological phenomenon of memory is characteristic of a person, among other things. Actually, it is possible to say metaphorically, a person as a person is his memory.
Memory - This is a process of imprinting, preserving, changes, reproduction, recognition and loss of past experience, which makes it possible to use it in activities and / or restoring it in the sphere of consciousness. (V. V. Nurkova).
Download the book: "General psychology. At 7 T.: Tutorial for higher studies. institutions / ed. B. S. Brother. - T. 3. Memory / V. V. Nurkova. "
Back in the myths of the ancient Greece, Mnemozina - the goddess of memory gave birth to nine muses from Zeus. Thus, the ancient Greeks attached a leading meaning of memory that determines the entire mental activity of a person. With regard to memory there are a large number of speculation. Nevertheless, at present, the efforts of neurophysiologists, cognitive psychologists and other representatives, psycho- and neurocams, this phenomenon of the mental sphere of man was studied quite in detail. Nevertheless, the unified theory of memory does not exist in the world. Various hypotheses and evidence coexist with each other, they contradict something, but nevertheless has a significant empirical material.
Block 2. Human memory. Communication with mental processes.
2.1. Memory and emotional experiences.
There is a direct connection between emotions and memory. Events positively painted are better when a person is in a good mood and vice versa, sad and sad events are easier to be remembered when a person is in the appropriate mood. This phenomenon was called - " Congrunce mood " The quality of memorization can significantly vary, which is detected when playing information. A person who turned out in a stressful situation may not remember the details and even major scenes of events, he at that moment " shocked " At the same time, some one parameter will be so important that " Uploads »Man's attention and the quality of reproduction of this information will be very high. Personality may forget the structure and content of traumatic events on the one hand and at the same time well remember their emotions associated with this event. Emotions in such situations are " Red flag ", Not allowing a person to remember the details, while being a symbol, code that predetermining the future human behavior.
Neutral events, without emotional filling are worse than events accompanied by human emotions.
2.2. Memory, motifs, values.
There is a direct connection between memory and human motives. So the subject that negotiates at the moment time on the issue of importance to him, being interrupted, will remember the verbalization chain is significantly better than if negotiations are completed. This is the effect of unfinished action.
If the student prepare for the exam, then after receiving the mark, his ability to remember the answers will be lower, sometimes significantly than in conditions when he has not yet received an estimate and did not pass the exam. This is the effect of completed action.
The ability to memorize correlates with the value component of the target that the subject pursues. The more significant purpose is at the moment, the better the information is remembered.
For example, the debtor can safely forget that it is obliged to give money debt, despite the fact that it would seem, Gestalt is not completed. It turns on here Mechanism forgetting Because in addition to negative emotions that fill the personality in the event of thoughts about the need to give duty, turns off the motive of the need to get . So, when a person is borrowed, this means that he has the problems that he needs to solve. After the money and problems are obtained, this situation ceases to be relevant and does not represent values. In turn, the irrevocable duty becomes the problem of the lender, which must be solved, which means to remember well. Naturally, the issue of monetary debt and memory associated with it, as a phenomenon is not exhausted by this explanation.
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Block 3. Human memory. Views.
3.1. Arbitrary and involuntary memory.
Distinguish arbitrary and involuntary memory.
1. Arbitrary memory.
Ensures the existence of a goal for memorizing information. Memorization occurs under the control of consciousness. So a person remembers poems, formulas, answers for the exam and much more. One desire is not enough to remember the information. The quality of memorization depends on the depth of information processing, the deability of the object under study.
2. Incoming memory.
Interestingly, the memorization is happening outside the conscious control. The person has no installation to remember the material. In this case, memorization occurs. This is due to the fact that some information " adhesive "To the goal that determines the current behavior. This information accompanies, " binds to nodules »With activities aimed at obtaining a target resource. Information outside targeted activity, i.e. Not accompanying it is usually not remembered.
3.2. Explicit and implicit memory.
There are also explicit memory and implicit.
1. Explicit memory.
Involves reproducing information to the volitional effort of the subject as needed.
2. implicit memory.
It imposes the impossibility of playing information to the subject volitional effort if necessary, but it is possible to reproduce information when using indirect methods. In fact, all information in the human brain turns out to be preserved, which ever was perceived during the life. At the same time possible The effect of precedence , involving the impact of implicit memory for the subsequent memorization of new information.
3.3. Retrospective and prospective memory.
1. Retrospective memory.
Presents memory for past events.
2. Prospective memory.
This is a memory for future events that need to be done, in fact, this is the memory of the intention. Prospective memory has a big value for the negotiators, since the fixation of the target results and the ability to keep them in memory is often becoming the main problem. The sides are sometimes negotiating that it did not meet the initial intention at all.
W. Petheld published his monograph "Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of The Human Brain. Second Edition. Jasper, H., and Penfield, W. Little, Brown and Co., 1954.). Being a neurophysiologist, neurosurgeon, he carried out during neurosurgical operations to remove epileptoid foci input to the brain of patients of electrodes. Electric stimulation of various parts of the brain was performed. Patients were conscious. When stimulating the temporal lobe of the brain, the patients said that they were remembered brightly, alive scenes from life, mostly from childhood. Whereas in the usual condition, without stimulation, such memories were not available for them. .
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Block 4. Human memory. Distortion.
The memory has the ability to reproduce accurate copies of perceived surrounding reality in the past, as well as the active reconstruction of the material captured earlier. This dualism is often underestimated by negotiators, which are perplexed by the opposite side so sincerely and persistently declares the events that actually happened somewhat differently.
Elizabeth Loftus Dedicated his scientific career to study the phenomenon distortion of memory.
Download the book Elizabeth Loftus. Catherine ketch. "Defense Witness. Shocking evidence of the vulnerability of our memories. "
Download the book Loftus Elizabeth. "Memory. Piercing revelations about how we remember and why forget. "
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So the difference between objects that was remembered and subsequently reproduced may look like this:
one. The subject can fully forget the event. So traumatic memories can be fully extended to the unconscious and be inaccessible for conscious memories. In addition, absolutely indifferent events are completely forgotten by "tight". A person forgets that he ate for breakfast yesterday, as he spent time from 11:20 to 13:10. The day before yesterday. The subject is able to forget even important and valuable information, such as the birthday of own children and parents.
The formation of traces of memory has a significant effect of focus of attention.
If the individual is concentrated and it has a setting to remember a certain specific information, then most likely it will not remember the information that does not "fit" in the pre-installed framework.
The surrounding reality consists of an unimaginable number of parts, to remember which a person is unable.
2. The subject is able to make a mistake in localization and / or duration of the event or its fragments in space and time. So, the subjective experience of time is capable of " stretch " or " Spresting " The time is sometimes perceived as a nudno long or in the form " brief flash "
3. The subject confuses the sequence of events fragments.
four. The subject distorts the causals - the investigative links between the fragments of the event, "pulls out" from the context of the event, rethinks the events. There is a substitution of other reasons. There are "attracted over the ears" of the investigation. A man with a celebration in his voice broadcasts: "I said that it would be so," pointing to 100% the correct forecast of events, although it was originally considered only likely.
five. The entity forgets or distorts the source of the events.
6. The subject forgets the fragments of events, "depletes" the image.
7. The subject makes additional fragments in an event that was not, "enriches" the image.
Block 5. Human memory. The laws.
One of the first memory researchers was Herman Ebbigauz . (Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. New York: Dover).
He allocated two phenomenon of memory: Memory and playback . Ebbigauz remembered about 2000 senseless syllables consisting of consonant - vowels - consonant in his native German by repetitions. Each time registered the number of repetitions and its own ability to recall the material at certain intervals. Based on the results obtained, the laws of memory were formulated:
1. The law of total time.
This law reflects the relationship between the time spent on memorizing and memorizing efficiency.
2. The law of accumulation and distribution of repetitions.
This law involves the existence of the dependence between the number of repetitions distributed over time.
3. The law of the position "Regional" effect.
It implies a deterioration in the memorization of a number of syllables that are located to the right of the previous ones, starting from the center of the string and to improve the memorization of the extreme right syllables. Arises Progressive braking . First, previous information elements block the memorization of subsequent information elements, and then the subsequent elements block the previous ones. Arises Regressive braking . As a result, the material that is at the beginning of a number and at the end is remembered as a result.
In addition, by other researchers the effect was found, according to which the memorization of information elements differ from the standard set of elements in the row is better. What stands out is more efficient. It is called The effect of novelty .
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Memory is a process that flows into the human psyche, due to which the accumulation, saving and mapping of the material is carried out. Memory This is in psychology. Definition of brain ability to fulfill the functions of memorization, storage and recreation of experience. Also, this mental process allows a person to remember the experiences and events of the past time, consciously thinking about his value in his own history and comprehend the feelings and emotions that related to it. This process contributes to the fact that a person can expand his cognitive abilities. Also, this property has a complex structure consisting of some functions and processes that ensure the perception of information from the surrounding reality and fix it in the past experience. Internal memory A complex process in which perception is carried out, accumulation, storage, systematization and very rapid reproduction of information.
Memory in psychology
Memory in psychology is to define the possibilities of a person to memorize, save, reproduce and forget the information of your own experience. This property helps a person move in space and time. There are different psychological theories in which there is one's own look at this concept.
In associative theory, there is a key concept Association. In memory, it combines parts of perceived material. When a person remembers something, he begins to seek a connection between these materials and those that need to be reproduced. The formation of associations has patterns: similarity, contrast and contrast. The similarity manifests itself in the fact that the material that is remembered is then reproduced through relations with similar material. The correspondence occurs when the incoming material is remembered in connection with the previous material. The contrast is expressed in the fact that the material that must be remembered differs from the one that is preserved.
According to behaviorestic theory, special exercises contribute to storage of material. Such exercises help better and faster to record attention on objects, episodes. The qualitative memorization has an influence of several factors: age, individual characteristics, interval between exercises, material volume and others.
In the cognitive theory, this process is characterized as some combination of blocks and transformation processes of information material. Same blocks provide recognition of expressive features of the material, the other is created a cognitive estimated information card, with the help of thirds the information is held, the fourth block converts material into a specific form.
The activity theory considers this process as the active component of communication between man and the world. This occurs through the processes of analysis, synthesis, grouping, repetition and selection of signs, with their help is also created by the mnemic image, a peculiar form of the material in which the person's personal attitude is. The memorization also affects the external stimuli signs, which later become internal and man, guided by them, manages this process.
This process, multi-level and multifunctional, such complexity involves the distinction of several of its species.
Inner memory Displays the biological processes to memorize the information by a person.
External memory Fixed on external means (paper, voice recorder). The distinguisure of other species is based on the nature of mental activity, the characteristics of the representations, the nature of communication with targeted activities, the duration of storage of images and research objectives. The simplest distribution of this process to the internal and external. Separation on species behind the character of mental activity: figurative, motor, verbal and logical and emotional.
Shaped memory - This is the process of memorizing images that were formed on the basis of the material of sensory systems. As a result, in the figurative process there are also types of memory, depending on the main analyzer system: visual (fixing the images of objects or people with which contact often occurred); auditory (image of sounds that once heard man); flavor (tastes that man once felt); olfactory (the image of odors with which a person can associate some kind of memory); Tactile (images of tangential sensations, which remind of objects or people).
Motor Memory - This is the view, thanks to which people learn to drive a bicycle, remember dance, play games, swim, also to make any work activity and different expedient movements.
Emotional memory - This is the ability to remember the feelings, the experiences of fear or shame, remember the emotions and their relativity to some particular situation at that time. If a person had no mental process, it would be "emotionally blunt" - this is determined by the state of the person in which he looks unattractive, uninteresting for others, such a robot-like object. The ability to express their emotions is the guarantee of mental health.
Verbal-logical memory It is divided into words, judgments and thoughts. It also is divided into mechanistic and logical. Mechanistic, includes memorizing material due to its constant repetition, when there is no awareness of the meaning of information. Logic - constitutes semantic links in storage facilities. Behind the level of awareness of the stored material memory is two species: implicit and explicit.
Implicit - Memory for not aware of human information. The memorization occurs is closed, regardless of consciousness and inaccessible to direct observation. Such a process is carried out with the need to find a solution in some situation, but even then cannot be aware of those knowledge that have a person. An example of such a process is that the person in the process of its socialization perceives the norms of society, and is guided by them in their behavior, not aware of the main theoretical principles.
Explicit memory It happens when the knowledge gained is used absolutely consciously. They are extracted, recall when there is a need to solve some task using these knowledge. This process can be: involuntary and arbitrary. In the involuntary process, traces of images remain unconsciously automatically. Such a memorization is more developed in childhood, with age it weakens.
Arbitrary memory - It is a purposeful memorization of the image.
For a duration in time, the memory is divided into instant, short-term, operational, long-term.
Instant memory It is also called sensory, it is displayed in the holding of information, perceived by touch analyzers. She, in turn, is divided into iconic and echoic.
Iconic - This is a sensory registrar of visual stimuli. With it, information is recorded in a holistic form. Man never distinguishes iconic memory and environmental objects. When iconic information is displaced by another information, the visual sensation becomes more susceptible. If the visual material goes too fast, then there is a layering of one information above another, which still keeps in memory, and moved back in long-term memory. This is called the reverse masking effect.
Echoic memory - Post-shape, it contains images of not more than 2-3 seconds, when there was an influence of a hearing stimulus.
Short-term memory Promotes memorizing by the human images after one-time, short-term perception and instantaneous playback. In such a process, the number of incentives that are perceived, their physical nature, and is not taken into account their information load.
A short memory has a specific formula for which the number of stored objects is determined. It sounds like "seven plus-minus two." When a person is presented to the stimulus, which depicts a certain number of items, it can be remembered from them 5 or 9 objects for a while up to 30 seconds.
RAM - Saves a trace of an image that is necessary to perform the current action.
Long term memory It can store traces of images for a very long time and allows them to use them in future activities. Thanks to this memorization, a person is able to save knowledge, which then he can extract or on his own request, or with external interference in the brain (with the help of hypnosis).
Depending on target research activities, there are special types of this mental process: biological, episodic, associative, reproductive, reconstructive, autobiographical.
Biological or is also called genetic, due to the mechanism of hereditary. It involves the ownership of such behavior patterns that were characteristic of people in earlier events of evolution, this is expressed in reflexes, instincts.
Episodic It is a storage of material fragments that are tied to a certain situation.
Reproductive It is to repeat the reproduction of information, recalling the original type of saved object.
Reconstructive It helps to restore the impaired sequence of incentives to the original form.
Associative memory Forms functional connections, that is, associations, between objects that are remembered.
Autobiographical memory Helps a person to memorize the events of his own life.
Training occurs when people don't even notice her. Issue a list of products needed in the store, the names of new acquaintances, the dates of birth - all this is a training session. But more specific exercises exist on development, they contribute to much better memorization, concentrating on the specific development of these abilities. If memory is developing, then other mental processes (thinking, perception, attention) are also developing at the same time.
There are the development of this exercise process, the most common will be briefly described below.
Development of memory in adults Exercises are very different. A very popular exercise has Tables Schulte. They contribute to the development of peripheral vision, attention, observation, speeds and visual memory. Looking for a consistently running number, vision, fixes only a few cells, the place of the desired cell and cells of other numbers is remembered.
Exercise on the development of photographic memory according to the method of Aivazovsky . Its essence is to look at the object for five minutes. After, close your eyes and restore the image of this object in the head, most clearly. Also these images can be drawing, it will help improve exercise efficiency. It needs to be performed periodically to develop a well-developed visual memory.
Exercise game in matches Helps to train the visual memory. To do this, put five matches on the table, and look at their location, then turn away, take five more matches and try on a different surface to recreate the location of the matches that were remembered.
Exercise Roman room Promotes the development of the ability to struggle the stored information, but it also employs visual memory. It is necessary to memorize the sequence of objects, their details, color, forms. As a result, more information is remembered and visual memory is trained.
To train auditory memory also exist exercises.
The development of memory in adult exercises should obey certain rules. The first exercise is reading out loud. When a person voicates a memorable material, he develops his vocabulary, improves diction, intonation, improves the ability to attach emotional color and brightness of its speech. Also better remember the audit components read. You need to read easily, not in a hurry, read as you talk. There are some rules: clearly catch words, with the appropriate alignment, expressively saying every word, not "eat" the end, pronounce the text as if this is a speech of a diplomat or a speaker, lays out your own thoughts on some serious matter. If you read at least ten or fifteen minutes every day, adhering to all the rules, you can notice the results in speech abilities and auditory memory.
Regular study of poems is a good and easy way in the memorization training. Studying verse, it is necessary to understand its meaning, to highlight the techniques that the author used. Divide it into semantic components, allocate the main idea. IMPORTANT learning verse all the time to repeat it, uttering out loud, use intonation, transfer the mood of the author, thus developing even diction. You need to repeat many times, and over time the number of repetitions will decrease. During the pronunciation of verse in the mind or loud, the articulation apparatus is involved. Studying the poem is used to long-term memorization of abstract information. Such a memorization occurs, for example, in the study of the multiplication table, or memorization of the PI number.
The auditory memory develops due to overheard. Being among people, in transport or on the street, on the bench, you need to focus on the conversation of other people among themselves, to comprehend information, try to remember it. Then, coming home, talk heard conversations with the corresponding intonation and recall the expression of people of people at the time of conversation. The exercise is so very often, a person will be able to learn how to perceive the text on a rumor, will become much more careful and more sensitive to intonation and tone.
The effective method is the development of memory according to the methods of special services. This is a training program that is based on methods applying in special services. The effectiveness of such a program is tested by scouts and counterperts. This method is presented in the book of the author Denis Bukina, which is also called "the development of memory on methods of special services".
In the modern world, almost everything is accustomed to the fact that they always have a telephone at hand, the tablet, the organizer in which the necessary information is stored and which can always be high. Routine work, overloading the process of memorization by unnecessary information, inability to systematize this information leads to the weakening of the molemic processes. The book describes a profession in which a well-developed memory is a key to success, more precisely, there is a vital - this is a scout. It can not save an operation plan on the phone, a map, he does not have time for a notepad. All important information should be stored only in the head, all the details so that they are clearly reproduced at the right time. Each head of the book describes each stage of the scout career. Each stage contains techniques, exercises and instructions for them.
The developed memory is very large plus personality of a person, both in everyday life and at work. In most professions, developed memory is very valued, it is a big advantage that helps to achieve great accomplishments at work and take great responsibility for themselves. There are certain methods for the development of this process. To remember something, you need to focus on the process, on the material itself. It is necessary to comprehend information, search for parallels in it in relation to their experience. The more chances there are such a connection, the better the memorization will be.
If you need to remember some item, for example, the name, phone, number, you do not need to rush at the notepad or the Internet for the answer. During a couple of minutes, you need to abstract from all external, look into the depths of your brain and try to remember yourself.
If you need to remember something very important, you need to create some kind of image in my head relative to this, the association is very bright. The brain is much easier remembering something original, in connection with which it will be easier to remember the necessary thing. To easily memorize numbers, you need to break them into groups, or also, as in the previous method, create associations.
A very effective method of developing memory is a simulator for the development of cognitive abilities, called the Vikuium project.
To remember something well, you need to immediately after the perception of information, say it, then retell it to someone else, it will be easier to remember and better understand the meaning of the material.
A very simple method that can be applied everywhere is a solution in the mind of the simplest arithmetic tasks.
Also the simplest way to develop the memorization is scrolling in the head of the events of the day. It is better to do at the end of each day before bedtime, recreating all the details and episodes, feelings, experiences, the emotions that this day was filled. It is also necessary to evaluate its actions and actions committed on this day.
Reading books contributes to the development of memorization, the brain concentrates, the text is perceived, and the parts are postponed in memory.
Effective memorization involves an understanding of the meaning of the text. It is very unprofitable to memorize the mechanical material, without retelling it in your own words. Such a process will stop at the level of RAM and in long-term will not go.
To develop the memory, you need to see myself to repeat the information, first to remember the repeated repetition, after such a frequent repetition of the brain will be sufficiently developed to remember the information faster.
Mechanical movements with hands help in the development of memory. When a person makes some long-term effect with his hands, the brain structures are activated.
Studying foreign languages is also a good tool for improving memory.
A considerable role will play the emotional state of a person. When a person is calm and happy, it will be able to quickly and easily remember information and reproduce it than a man in anger or anxiety.
To develop memory, it is necessary to work on it, focused and purposefully. Laziness will contribute to the degradation of a person's psyche, and good memory will clearly not be a characteristic feature of such a person. Developed memory opens up in a person great prospects, thanks to memory you can achieve high results, both at work and communication.
With the help of neuroker, you can also develop and maintain this mental process. There is a corresponding literature, which describes the mass of methods for the development of this process.
The methods described above need to load their memory, without regular training, it will weaken, to sum up and accelerate the aging of thinking.
There are several more rules that must be followed for the effective development of this process. In order for the memory to be good, it is necessary that the brain is workable, for this it should be saturated with oxygen, which enters the blood. To do this, it is often necessary to go to the air, take breaks in mental work for a few minutes, do exercises, charging, which contribute to the tide of blood to the brain.
If a person smokes and does not train his memory, he prescribes itself the rapid wear of mental processes. If a person smokes and trains memory, it starts such processes a little later, but still faster than non-smoking people.
Full sleep contributes to the development of this process, provides brain activity. If a person does not fall out, his memory at the biological level is not capable of working in the right way. Because the brain depends on the biological rhythms of the day and night, so only at night the cells of the brain and the next morning are restored, after the seven or eight hours, the person will be prepared for the productive working day.
To preserve the flexibility of the mind you need to abandon alcohol. The more man uses, the more he harms his brain. Some people have experience when after alcohol abuse, they do not remember half of the events. Especially when it is necessary to learn some material, then it should be avoided even the use of wine and beer, not to mention the stronger drinks. For well-developed memory, it is necessary to eat correctly, especially products that contain phosphoric acid and calcium salts.
All of the above methods, rules, if they are applied in the complex guarantee the development and saving of memory for many years.
Development of memory in children
From early childhood, the development of memory is implemented in several directions. The first way assumes that the mechanical memory gradually begins to change, will be complemented, and then the logical is completely replaced. The second direction implies the immediate memorization of information, gradually turning into an indirect, which is applied in memorizing and reflecting different interchange agents. The third path lies in an involuntary memorization that dominates in childhood, but with age becomes arbitrary.
Creating internal memorization methods depends on speech development. Memorization that switches with externally mediated into the internal associated with speech metamorphoses from external internal.
Development of memory in preschool children In particular, the process of immediate memorization is slightly more likely to form an indirect memorization. And together with this, it becomes more gap in the performance of these types of memorization for the first favor.
Development of memory in children of primary school age It is expressed by the simultaneous development of direct memorization and indirect, but rapidly generating mediated memory. Developing a large pace, indirect memorization catch up with the productivity directly.
The development of this process in preschool children is expressed by the gradual transition of uninimiced memorization to arbitrary. In children of the middle preschool period, about a four-year-old age, memorization and reproduction, which have not been led to learning mnemical functions and in natural development conditions, are involuntary.
Senior preschoolers in the same conditions are characterized by a gradual transition of the unwitting to the arbitrary storage of the material. At the same time, in the relevant processes, a practically independent process of the development of special perceptual action, the development of mediating molemic processes aimed at improving memorizing and mapping materials.
Not all of these processes are developing the same in all children with age, some have the property to be ahead of others. So, arbitrary reproduction is developing faster for arbitrary memorization and distinguishes it in development. The development of memory depends on the interest and motivation of the child in the activities performed by him.
The development of memory in preschool children is characterized by the predominance of involuntary, visual-emotional memory. In the younger - middle preschool period, well-developed mechanical memory and immediate.
The development of memory in children of younger school age is spoken quite well, especially this concerns mechanical memorization and its progression for the period of three or four years of study, which is carried out very quickly. A little in development is lagging behind the logical and indirect memory, but this is a normal process. Children in their teaching, work, game and communications are quite a mechanical memory. But special training for the mnemonic receptions of children from the first of their years of study, significantly improves the productivity of logical memory. The non-use of these techniques, or ineptly applying them in practice, may be the cause of the weak development of the arbitrary memory of young children. The use of special molemic tasks is facilitated by a good development of this process of children, they are put in front of children according to their activities.
Author :Practical psychologist Vednash N.A.
Speaker of the Medical and Psychological Center "Plyomed"
Memory is one of the most important cognitive processes. Its place in our lives is difficult to overestimate, because on how quickly we remember and keep the necessary information for a long time depends on success in any activity. Wanting to improve your memory, make it more efficient and put on your service, we do not always think about what memory we need. After all, this phenomenon of our psyche appears in different ways in various spheres of our life.
Memory as a process: stages of information saving
Memory is not in vain referring to cognitive processes. Like any process, memorization and saving require time and have their own levels or stages, which are also considered as types of memory.
This appearance refers to memorization processes, but it is somewhat separate. RAM served human activity. Information at this level is stored for a short time, but the main thing, the brain does not consider it at all as something that you need to remember. Why? Because we need it exclusively to make specific operations. For example, to understand the offer, you need to save the meaning of the read the words. Sometimes, however, there are such long suggestions that while you see to finish to the end, forget what was at the beginning.
The operational memory is superficial and short-term, it is working. But it is necessary for successful activities, it can be developed and increased volume. It trains it exclusively in activity. So, reading, we gradually learn to understand increasingly complex and long offers in many respects by improving RAM. Good rapid memory is something that distinguishes professionals.
This is the first stage of the process of memorizing information, which can be called a physiological or reflex level. Sensory memory is associated with very short conservation of signals entering the nerve cells of the senses. The duration of saving information in touch memory from 250 milliseconds to 4 seconds.
The most famous and studied two types of sensory memory:
Moreover, sound images are kept somewhat longer. Such a feature allows us to understand speech and listen to music. The fact that we perceive are not separate sounds, but a holistic melody - the merit of sensory memory. And the newborn child, whose senses are not entirely developed, the whole world sees as a cluster of color spots. The ability to perceive a holistic picture is also the result of the development of visual sensory memory.
That information that attracted our attention, goes from sensory memory into short-term. True, this is a very insignificant part of the signals taken by our senses, most do not attract our attention. The American inventor T. Edison wrote: "The brain of the middle man does not perceive the thousandth rollers of what he sees the eye." And often problems with memory are actually associated with insufficient ability to concentrate attention.
This is the first stage of processing intended for storing information. At the level of short-term memory, almost everything is incorporated, which attracts our attention, but delayed there very long - about 30 seconds. It is this time that it is necessary to brain to begin processing the data obtained and determine the degree of their need.
- The volume of short-term memory is also small - 5-7 not connected with each other elements: words, numbers, visual images, sounds, etc.
- At this level, the process of evaluating the information; I needed duplicated, repeated, it has a chance to get to longer storage.
For longer saving information (but not more than 7 minutes), it is necessary to maintain concentrated attention, which is the information for the need of information. And failed in the area of attention leads to a phenomenon called the substitution. It occurs when the flow of the information entering the brain is large enough, and it does not have time to be processed in short-term memory. As a result, the newly received data is replaced with new and irrevocably lost.
This situation is found in the preparation of students for the exam when trying to "swallow" at a limited period of time, the student prevents her brain normally to learn it. Prevent substitution, keep the large amount of material in short-term memory for a longer period and ensure that it is transferred to long-term memory with the help of conscious repetition and progress. The longer information is saved in short-term memory, the more durable its memorization is.
Long term memory
This is a warehouse of various data, which is distinguished by almost indefinite storage and huge volume. Sometimes, for example, a student before the exam complains that so much just impossible to remember. And since there is too much information, the head literally is overflowed and no longer climbs. But this is self-deception. We cannot save information in long-term memory, not because there is no place there, but because I remember incorrectly.
The level of long-term memory comes and is still stored for a long time:
- included in the activity;
- Processed information attached by semantic and associative connections to existing.
The more the person knows, the easier it remembers the subsequent information, since the connections of the new with the already known are fixed faster.
The problem with saving data in long-term memory may be associated with other reasons. The information on long-term storage is not so easy to extract from there. The fact is that long-term memory has two layers:
- Upper, where frequently used knowledge is stored. For their remember, no effort is required, they are always at hand.
- The lower level on which the "closed" information is located for a long time has not been used, therefore, it is estimated to be a brain as an unfounded or unnecessary. For her remember, efforts and special mnemic (related memory processes) are required. The less often information is used, the more deep layers of long-term memory it is stored. Sometimes the cardinal measures are needed to get to it, for example, hypnosis, and sometimes some small event that causes a chain of associations.
But the variety of memory types is not limited to the stages that differ in the duration of the preservation of information.
Memory types: what we remember
In my life, we are confronted with the need to memorize very diverse information entering our brain through different channels and in various ways. Depending on which mental processes are involved, the types of memory are also distinguished.
The largest amount of information in our memory is stored in the form of sensual images. We can say that all senses work on our memory:
- Visual receptors supply visual images, including information in the form of printed text;
- auditory - sounds, including music and human speech;
- tactile - tactile sensations;
- olfactory - smells;
- Taste - a variety of tastes.
Images in the brain begin to accumulate literally from birth. This type of memory is not only the largest information storage, it may differ and literally phenomenal accuracy. The so-called Eidetic memory is known - photographically accurate, detailed memorization of images. The most studied cases of such memorization in the field of visual. Eidetics are extremely rare and usually have some deviations in the psyche, for example:
- A tendency to suicide.
Motor or Motor Memory
This is a very ancient mind of the memorization that emerged at the dawn of evolution. But the memory of the movement and now plays a huge role, and not only in sports activities. Here we go to the table, take a mug, pour tea into it, write something in a notebook, we speak - all this movement, and they are impossible without motor memory. What to talk about the meaning of motor skills in labor or sports. Without motor memory it is impossible:
- Child learning writing;
- Mastering knitting, embroidery, drawing skills;
- Even the training of kids walking requires the activity of the motor memory.
Memory on feelings is less noticeable in the daily life of people and seems less significant. But it is not. The emotions are impregnated by our whole life, and without them she would have lost their meaning, and attractiveness too. Best of all, of course, the bright emotionally painted events are remembered. But we are able to remember not only the bitterness of the resentment or fireworks of the first love, but also the tenderness of communication with the mother, the joy of meeting with friends or from the five-school school.
Emotional memory has a pronounced associative character, that is, memories are activated in the process of establishing communication - association with some phenomenon or event. Often there is a sufficiently small detail so that the waterfall of the feelings rushed to us again, which we experienced once. True, the feelings of memories never reach the strength and energy that was inherent in them for the first time.
Emotional memory is also important because it is best remembered and a longer stored emotionally painted information related to bright feelings.
This type of memory is considered exceptionally human. Lovers of pets may argue that animals, such as dogs and cats, can also remember the words well. Yes it is. But words for them are just a combination of sounds associated with one or another visual, auditory, olfactory way. In humans, the verbal-logical memory is semantic, conscious.
That is, we remember the words and their combinations are not like sound images, but as some sense. And a bright example of such a semantic memorization can serve as a story A. P. Chekhov "Horsepointhmia". In it, a person remembered the last name in meaning, and then he recalled this "horsepower" last name. And she turned out to be oats. That is, it worked precisely associative-semantic memorization.
By the way, the verbal-logical memory is better working when not separately taken words, and their meaningful designs - proposals combined into text having more detailing meaning. The verbal-logical memory is not only the youngest form, but also requiring conscious, focused development, that is, related to memorization and arbitrary mental activities.
Memory types: How do we remember
The abundance of information incoming to the brain requires its sorting, and not everything that we get on the touch channels is remembered by itself. It happens that efforts are required to memorize. Depending on the degree of mental activity, memory is divided into involuntary and arbitrary.
The dream of every schoolboy and the student will be the knowledge to be remembered by itself without any effort. Indeed, a lot of information is also remembered - involuntarily, that is, without volitional effort. But in order to include an involuntary memory mechanism, an important condition is necessary. It is remembered involuntarily what attracted our involuntary attention:
- Bright, strong and unusual information (loud sounds, strong outbreaks, fantastic paintings);
- vital information (situations associated with the threat to the life and health of the person himself and its loved ones, important, key events in life, etc.);
- data related to interests, hobbies and human needs;
- Emotionally painted information;
- What is directly related to professional or becomes involved in labor, creative activity.
Other information is not saved by itself, except for a smart student will be able to captivate himself and interested in educational material. Then for his memorization will have to make a minimum effort.
Any training, whether school sessions or mastery of professional activities, contains not only bright, fascinating information, but also just necessary. It is necessary, although not too interesting, and it should be remembered. For this, it serves arbitrary memory.
It is not only and not even so much simple conviction that "this is necessary to keep in my head." Arbitrary memory is primarily special memorization techniques. They are also called meals by mnemonics by the name of the ancient Greek music of Memosen.
The first matery techniques were designed in ancient Greece, but they are now effectively used, and many new techniques that facilitate the memorization of complex information has been created. Unfortunately, most people with them are familiar and use simply multiple repetition of information. This is, of course, the easiest, but also least effective memorization. It is lost up to 60% of the information, and it requires a lot of effort and time.
You got acquainted with the main types of memory, which studies psychology and which are of fundamental importance in the life of a person, in mastering knowledge and professional skills. But in various fields of science, you can meet with other species of this mental process. For example, there is genetic, autobiographical, reconstructive, reproductive, episodic and other types of memory.
What is the memory as a definition know even schoolchildren, but as a complex of complex processes in the human body until then unknown by scientists. Today's article is devoted not only to what is a memory, but also its species that there is a large number. Each type has a number of functions, as well as unusual characteristics, which will later talk about. An important moment will be an explanation of the physical aspects, as well as submitting information to readers on the development of this ability in humans. The accumulation and use of important information gave the opportunity to do not only make a jump in development, but also to make incredible discoveries. Everyone is needed not only for progress, because pleasant memories and images of loved ones are able to warm the soul and make a person happy .
Let's understand what memory is
Let's start with the fact that the memory is one of the most important features of living organisms, which helps them to survive, and humanity, thanks to her, developed modern civilization. With the definition of what memory would seem to be, everything is clear - this is the ability to maintain and reproduce past experience. The body constantly accepts information from all senses and accumulates it for possible use in the future. Announced abstract thinking, people, even create information that does not have a physical expression, and also store it in their memory, are transmitted to others.
What is the memory and its physical aspects
In general, memory is characterized as the property of the nervous system. That is, memory begins to work since birth and until death. To be more accurate, it exists while the nervous system is alive. It has long been known that the accumulation of information occurs even at the stage of the embryo and for some time after clinical death.
If you ask the first person's first thing, what is the memory and where it is stored, almost everyone will say that in the head, namely, that the brain is a receptacle of all the knowledge. However, this is the most generalized opinion, because science still does not understand all the principles of the nature of memory. The fact is that the brain is a very complex organ, although it looks solid. In fact, different departments are responsible for different functions:
- somewhere the speech center;
- In another place the musculoskeletal;
- Something is responsible for emotions or orientation in space, etc.
It would seem, to find a site of accumulation of information is not difficult. Nevertheless, many studies show the opposite, because the memory does not have a single location. Of course, the instrument shows where signals arise when memorizing. That's just playback of information often occurs completely from the other place. Moreover, in different situations, memorizing or repetition of one and the same can occur in different parts of the brain. Some researchers are at all doubted that in the process of memorization exclusively the brain is involved. Ever perceived by us. Yes, although it seems to us that it is impossible and only a small part of the data is preserved, there is a well-established theory that our memory stores every last moment and it does not depend on the fact that it is possible to consciously remember the desired or not. Read the article about How to become kinder , After all, people tend to quickly forget the good, and the evil to remember forever, which adversely affects the body.
With a general concept that such a memory, we figured out, and it's time to discuss existing species. Memory is so widespread that the criteria for its categorization there is a lot. Most often, use a generalizing grouping relative to duration, quantity and type of information. Consider all existing types of memory and give brief specifications.
Direct or, in other words, instant memory, which keeps the sensations perceived from the senses. Nervous impulses are very fast, so the processing occurs for a split second.
It lasts, on average, up to 30 seconds. Thus, for example, the phone number is remembered or the last heard offer. In short-term memory, in principle, you can keep a small piece of information as much as you like, but as soon as the need for it disappears, new data come to shift.
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We can say that this is the memory of which we think when you hear this word. It is in it that everything we can consciously remember. This is a specially learned information and any life events. There are no fundamental restrictions on the volume and duration of storage. Someone has unique ability to remember every book read once, and someone suffers from constant forgetfulness, but at some point he can suddenly recall some detail of twenty years ago.
Specific types of memory
In addition, a number of specific types of memory are distinguished:
- Operative. It is rather, even a certain memorization process. Namely - the use of memory for storing the intermediate results of their actions. For example, in this way, you can store a few minutes of part of arithmetic calculations or some plans for several days.
- Motor memory. Memorization based on physical movements in a certain system of action. Obviously, thanks to her, a person walks or owns a letter, not particularly thinking about the process itself. And also, everyone can remember its own examples of the game on a musical instrument, skillful needlework or password printing on the keyboard, when the hands perform the right action faster than it could be described by them in words, and sometimes even problematic, without making any movements.
- Emotional. In other words - the memory of feelings. Emotions experienced in the past are remembered as a template for further actions or, on the contrary, to their termination. Fashionable now The concept of empathy It is just based on the use of emotional memory.
- Warning-logical memory. This, literally, concrete thoughts of man. All meditation, one way or another, are logical conclusions based on the earlier information. Since it is impossible to think without a verbal form, then in the process also involves the memory of a language on which a person thinks.
- Fig. The memory is based on sensory perception and interpretation of the environment. All sounds, odors, images associated with a certain event form a single image. If in the future a person faces, at least with one of the components, the memory causes the whole image entirely. This type of memory plays a particularly important role for people with limited physical abilities - blind, deaf, etc.
What is the memory and how to develop it
Although memory is very individual ability and has a dependence on the physical parameters of the nervous system, this is one of the few mental characteristics that can be trained. Useful will be reading an article about Intellect . If there are problems with memorization or just want to develop your memory, you need to adhere to such recommendations:
- Improve the memorization process itself. For more reliable fixation of information, it is necessary to thoroughly think about it and find the maximum number of associations, which will continue to help it pull.
- Trying to independently remember forgotten. If the situation is tolerate, it is important not to look for the desired entry or ask someone, but calmly focus and look for an answer in your memory.
- Create an analogy. Information is different and you can not always find a suitable association, so you can independently create an abstract image that will easily associate with something well known.
- Repeat the information. Depending on what type of memory is more susceptible, you need to retell (yourself or someone) or write this information several times (re-read).
- Engage in mathematics. At any free time you can do at least the simplest arithmetic operations. In order not to be boring, it is recommended to use the world around us, for example, fold the digits of the car number, to count the windows in the building, multiply the amount of light bulbs on the number of chairs, etc.
- Take the results of the day. Before bedtime, it is desirable to remember all the events in the day in chronological order. Particularly important moments can be considered from all sides and think about alternative events development options.
- Read a lot. This is simultaneously a very simple, but very effective way to develop memory. Short-term, long-term memory, figurative, verbal and logical, and even emotional is also activated.
- To memorize the poetry or excerpts of the text. The rhymed form of poetry or a particularly marked prosaic description is given easy and well develop memory.
- Do not tool information. It does not matter whether it is necessary to remember something important or in order to develop memory - you never have to mechanically remove the information. From this brain only tires and even worse perceives the data. To better assimilate the obtained, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the memorized.
- Examine several foreign languages. An occupation requiring patience, but very positively affecting memory.
And, of course, the general physical and psychological state contributes to the development of memory. Very unnecessary will be balanced nutrition, sports, healthy sleep and meditation.
Conclusion about what memory is
So I got to the final of the article about what a memory is, and now the reader can make decent conclusions. I would like to say that the memory of man is not fully studied, and therefore its real capabilities and the maximum limit are not predictable. It is important to understand only one thing, take care of this unique ability and try to train it in every way and develop. We wish readers to always stay vigorous and healthy, and in the elderly to have a memory, as in youth.
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