Hypertension (increased pressure): Causes and symptoms - Warning - Depart

Overview

Increased pressure above the age norm correctly call arterial hypertension.

If the pressure rises often or for a long time, and during the examination, it is not possible to identify the causes of this, then they are diagnosed with hypertensive disease. If a person has any disease that caused pressure to increase pressure (for example, the crank-brain injury in the past, kidney disease, etc.), they are talking about secondary arterial hypertension. However, all cases of increased pressure are often called hypertension.

Hypertension is known as a "quiet killer", as it does not always have obvious symptoms, especially at the initial stages. It is installed that 20-30% of the country's adult population have increased pressure, although many long time do not know about their disease. If the hypertension is not treated, the risks of the heart attack or stroke increase. The only way to learn about the presence of the problem is to regularly measure blood pressure.

How to measure pressure

Blood pressure is the force with which the blood pressure on the walls of the vessels and hearts. With hypertension, blood pressure on the artery and the heart becomes unnecessary, which leads to premature wear of these organs and increases the risk of other diseases, for example, disorders of the kidneys or brain.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of a mercury pillar (mm Hg. Art.) And fixed in two dimensions:

  • Systolic pressure: blood pressure at the moment when your heart is reduced and pushes blood in artery;
  • The diastolic pressure is blood pressure at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle between two abbreviations.

For example, if your doctor says that your blood pressure is "140 to 90," this means that your systolic pressure is 140 mm RT. Art., and diastolic pressure - 90 mm Hg. Art.

Optimal blood pressure in an adult person is considered to be the indicators less than 120/80 mm Hg. Art. However, within the normal range, there are numbers to 139/89 inclusive. If, according to the results of several measurements, your pressure exceeds 140/90 inclusive, you have arterial hypertension, additional examination is required and, possibly, treatment.

Symptoms of arterial hypertension (hypertension)

Increased blood pressure is not always accompanied by a change in well-being. The only way for sure to know if you have hypertension, is to measure blood pressure. Adults should check their blood pressure at least once every five years.

If you are pregnant, it is important to constantly check your blood pressure, even if it is not high. Monitoring blood pressure in the pregnancy process reduces the risk of developing complications. Increased blood pressure in a pregnant woman can lead to preeclampsia. This is a dangerous state at which there is a problem with the placenta (body that ensures the blood circulation of the future child).

Sometimes symptoms of increased pressure become:

  • headache;
  • darkening or twin in the eyes;
  • Bleeding from the nose;
  • dyspnea.

Such signs appear in people with very high pressure. If you have discovered some of these symptoms, consult a doctor. Without treatment, arterial hypertension can lead to serious illnesses, including stroke and heart attack. Immediately sign up for the reception to the therapist if you have found any of these symptoms or increased pressure. If the symptoms are expressed significantly, call ambulance.

Causes of hypertension (arterial hypertension)

In more than 90% of cases, the cause of high blood pressure cannot be established. Then hypertension is called essential or primary. To factors that can increase the risk of developing primary hypertension, belong:

  • Age: The risk of developing hypertension increases with age;
  • In your family there were cases of hypertension (the disease, perhaps is hereditary);
  • excess salt in your diet;
  • lack of exercise;
  • fullness;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • stress.

Famous causes of hypertension

About 10% of cases of increased pressure are the result of a certain disease or a specific reason. These cases relate to secondary hypertension. Typical causes of increase in pressure in this case are:

  • kidney disease;
  • diabetes;
  • narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidney blood;
  • hormonal diseases, such as Cushing syndrome (a disease in which the body produces too many steroid hormones);
  • diseases that affect body connective tissues, for example, systemic red lupus;
  • contraceptive pills (oral contraceptives);
  • Paintal agents known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen;
  • Club drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines and crystalline methamphetamine;
  • Some vegetable drugs, herbal additives.

Diagnosis of hypertension

To diagnose arterial hypertension and the identification of its possible causes, primarily resort to a systematic measurement of blood pressure. This can be done both by a medical worker, and independently, with the help of a home apparatus for measuring pressure.

Healthy people at the age of more than 40 years should be measured its blood pressure at least once every five years. If you have an increased risk of hypertension, you should more often check blood pressure, ideally - once a year.

Blood pressure testing is usually easy to carry out a polyclinic and hospitals. Blood pressure is usually measured using a tonometer (pressure gauge), a device that consists of a stethoscope, cuffs, a measuring instrument, air supercharger and valve.

The cuff turns around the shoulder and pumped up to limit the blood flow in the artery. Then the air in the cuff start slowly to slow down, listening to the pulse with a stethoscope. Listening to your pulse in place below the cuff with descended air allows you to get reliable data on the readings of your blood pressure. In addition, automatic (digital) tonometers, which measure pressure and pulse, using electrical sensors are distributed.

Before proceeding to measuring blood pressure, you should relax for at least five minutes and empty your bladder. To get the right blood pressure testimony, you need to sit and do not talk during manipulation.

If you have an increased blood pressure at one measurement, then it does not necessarily mean that you have hypertension. During the day, blood pressure levels can fluctuate. The pressure can rise during the doctor's reception due to anxiety and stress. In these cases, it is recommended to measure pressure during the day independently, with a home tonometer. By excluding the "Fear of White Kolata", you can get more objective indicators.

You can also take blood and urine tests to check the availability of diseases that increase the risk of high blood pressure, for example, kidney disease.

Deciphering testimonies Tonometer

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury pillar (mm Hg. Art.) And fixed in two ranges:

  • Systolic pressure: blood pressure at the moment when your heart is reduced and pushes blood in artery;
  • The diastolic pressure is blood pressure at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle between two abbreviations.

For example, if your systolic blood pressure is 140 mm RT. Art., and the diastolic blood pressure is 90 mm Hg. Art., It is said that your pressure is 140 to 90.

Ideally, blood pressure should be less than 120/80. However, the readings below 140/90 in the general case are considered as normal. If you have diseases of kidneys, diabetes or heart disease and blood circulation system, your target blood pressure should be below 130/80 mm Hg. Art.

If pressure indicators within a few days above 140/90 - you have arterial hypertension and further examination is required.

Treatment of increased pressure

Effective actions to reduce blood pressure level consist in changing lifestyle and taking drugs. The choice of treatment regimen will depend on the level of blood pressure and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

If your blood pressure is slightly higher than 130/80 mm Hg. Art., And at the same time, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is low, then you should be able to reduce the pressure only by making certain changes to your lifestyle.

If your blood pressure is moderately high (140/90 mm Hg. Art. Or higher), and there is a risk of developing cardiovascular diseases over the next 10 years, the treatment will include the reception of drugs and adjust your lifestyle.

If your blood pressure is very high (180/110 mm Hg. Art. Or higher), in the near future you need treatment, perhaps with an additional examination, depending on your health.

Lifestyle with arterial hypertension

Below are some changes that you might contribute to your lifestyle to reduce the pressure. Some of them will lead to a rapid improvement for several weeks, others will influence a longer period.

  • Reduce salt consumption to less than 6 grams per day.
  • Eat healthy, degreased, balanced food, including a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Be active: maintaining physical activity is one of the key things you want to prevent or control the hypertension.
  • Reduce alcohol consumption
  • Refuse smoking. Smoking significantly increases the likelihood of diseases of lungs and heart disease.
  • Lose weight.
  • Drink less coffee, tea or other caffeine drinks, such as Cola. Eating more than four cups of coffee per day can enhance your blood pressure.
  • Try using such relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation and stress management (autogenic training).

The more healthy habits you master, the greater the positive effect will have it. In practice, some people discover that when maintaining a healthy lifestyle, they generally disappears the need for medication.

Medicinal treatment of hypertension

There is a wide selection of reduced drug pressure. You may need to take more than one type of drugs, because sometimes for the treatment of hypertension, a combination of several drugs is needed.

In some cases, you will need to take down pressure drugs throughout life. However, if your blood pressure level remains under control for several years, you will have the opportunity to stop medicinal treatment. Most high-pressure drugs can cause side effects, but this problem can be solved by replacing the prepared preparations.

Notify your doctor if you have any of the following common side effects of drug intake:

  • sense of drowsiness;
  • kidney pain (in the area of ​​the belt);
  • dry cough;
  • dizziness, exhaustion or lethargy;
  • Rash on the skin.

Below are the most widely used preparations from high pressure.

Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Reduce blood pressure, relaxing the walls of blood vessels. The most common side effect is a permanent dry cough. If the side effects begin to disturb too much, such drugs can be recommended as angiotensin-2 receptor antagonists, the action of which is similar to the action of ACE inhibitors.

ACE inhibitors can cause unforeseen side effects if accepted with others, including non-receptible, drugs. Before starting receiving any additional drug, consult a doctor if their combination of negative side effects will cause their combination.

Calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists) prevent calcium intake in the cells of the muscle tissue of heart and blood vessels. This leads to the expansion of your arteries (large blood vessels) and a decrease in blood pressure.

The use of grapefruit juice when receiving some types of calcium channels can increase the risk of side effects. More details you can discuss this issue with your doctor.

Diuretic products (Diuretics) operate due to the elimination with urine from the body excess liquid and salt.

Beta blockers (beta adrenoblockers) Act by reducing the frequency and force of heart rate, thus reducing blood pressure. Previously, beta blockers were a popular drug medicinal product, but at present they are usually used only when other means do not provide the required action. This is due to the fact that beta-blockers are considered less effective than other types of drugs from high pressure.

Also, beta-blockers can affect other drugs, causing side effects. Meet your doctor before starting receiving other drugs in combination with beta blockers.

Do not stop receiving beta blockers suddenly, without consulting with your doctor. This may lead to serious side effects, such as an increase in blood pressure or angina attack.

Alpha Blockers (Alpha Adrenoblays) Usually not recommended as a preparation of the first choice to reduce high blood pressure, except when other drugs do not require the necessary action. Alpha blockers actually affect the relaxation of your blood vessels, significantly alleviate blood flow inside them.

Common side effects of alpha blockers include:

  • fainting at the first reception of the drug ("The effect of the first dose");
  • dizziness;
  • headache;
  • Ankle's edema;
  • fatigue.

Complications of hypertension

Increased blood pressure has an additional burden on your heart and blood vessels. If hypertension is not treated, after a certain time, the risk of developing heart attack, stroke and kidney diseases increases.

Cardiovascular diseases with hypertension Complications of hypertension

Hypertension can cause many different heart disease and blood vessels and heart vessels (cardiovascular diseases), including:

  • stroke;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • Embolia: occurs when the blood clots or air bubble block blood flow in the vessel;
  • Aneurysm: It develops when the wall of the blood vessel is stretched and can be broken at any moment by causing internal bleeding.

Kidney disease and increased pressure

Hypertension may also lead to damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys and the violation of their function. This complication may cause such symptoms as:

  • fatigue;
  • Overtecakes, stop or hands (due to the water delay in the body);
  • dyspnea;
  • the presence of blood in the urine;
  • frequent urination, especially at night;
  • Skin itch.

Kidney diseases are treated with drugs and food additives. More serious cases require dialysis (therapeutic procedure in which the blood is artificially cleaned from toxic products of metabolism in the body) or kidney transplant.

Prevention of increased pressure

The development of hypertension can be prevented by healthy nutrition, maintaining normal weight, performing regular physical exercises, restrictions on alcohol consumption and smoking.

Smoking in itself does not cause high blood pressure, but significantly increases the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke. Smoking, as well as high blood pressure, leads to the narrowing of the arteries. If you smoke in the presence of hypertension, then your artery will be narrowed much faster and the risks of development in your future diseases of the heart and the lungs will increase significantly.

High pressure nutrition How to eat with hypertension

Reduce the amount of salt in your diet, eat a lot of fruits and vegetables. Salt increases pressure. The more salt you consume, the higher your pressure. Strive to eat less than 6 g of salt per day, which is approximately equal to one teaspoon.

As it was proven, eating food with low fat and high tissue content (for example, whole grain rice, bread and paste) and a large number of fruits and vegetables help reduce blood pressure. Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals and fibers that support your body in a healthy condition. Strive to eat five portions to 80 g. Fruit and vegetables every day.

Regular use of alcohol above acceptable norms over time will lead to an increase in your blood pressure. Men are not recommended to use more than 2-4 portions of alcohol per day regularly, and women are more than 2-3. Under regular use is understood every day or most of the days of the week. 1 Portion of alcohol approximately corresponds to a glass of vodka, half of the wine glasses or half of the beer mug.

Also, since alcohol is highly caloriene, its regular use leads to an increase in weight, and accordingly - to an increase in your blood pressure. Read more about how to dispense alcohol reasonably.

If you drink more than four cups of coffee per day, then this can lead to an increase in pressure. If you are a big fan of coffee, tea or other rich coffee beverages (such as Coca-Cola and some energy drinks), consider reducing their consumption. Very good when you drink tea and coffee as part of a balanced nutrition, but it is important that such drinks will not be your only source of fluid.

Weight and exercise with hypertension

Overweight forces the heart to work more intense to pump blood through the entire organism, which usually leads to an increase in your blood pressure. If you really need to lose overweight, it is important to remember that the loss of even two-three kilograms of weight will lead to a significant change in the testimony of your blood pressure and improving your health in general.

Active lifestyle and regular performance of physical exercises lead to a decrease in blood pressure by maintaining heart and blood vessels in good condition. Regular performance of exercise also helps you lose weight, which also helps you reduce blood pressure.

An adult follows every week to spend at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) at the exercise of moderate intensity outdoors, such as cycling or fast walking. When performing exercises, you should focus on what you should feel heated and slightly breathing. A complete person to achieve this state may be quite a bit walk in the slide. Physical activity may include a variety of exercises, from sports until walking and working in the garden.

Relaxation exercises can reduce blood pressure. They include:

  • Stress management (autogenic training), meditation or yoga.
  • Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, which focuses on how your thoughts and beliefs can affect your well-being and ability to deal with problems. You can discuss with your doctor the opportunity to pass such psychotherapy.
  • Biological feedback The self-regulation method used to help you in conscious blood pressure control: on a small monitor, you demonstrate your heartbeat or blood pressure indicators. Direction for biological feedback can be carried out by your doctor.

What doctor to contact hypertension?

If you have increased pressure, find a good therapist who can figure out the causes of the disease and assign treatment. If you have a heart complaint or there are chronic cardiovascular diseases, select a cardiologist using our service.

What to do with high pressure

The causes of high pressure can be:

  • Refusal to receive hypotensive drugs
  • Incorrect reception of drugs with hypertension
  • Thyroid diseases, kidneys, adrenal glands
  • heart diseases
  • Preeclampsia in pregnant women
  • Headbands head injuries
  • Heavy burns
  • Abuse nicotine, alcohol
  • psycho-emotional stress
  • Significant physical exertion
  • Abundant food
  • Atmospheric pressure drops

Symptoms of arterial hypertension:

  • Intensive headache
  • dizziness
  • nausea, vomiting
  • violation of vision transient blindness
  • Fakes in the eyes, flickering "flies" before your eyes
  • Hand numbness, face
  • Reducing pain sensitivity in the field of face, lips, language
  • Feeling crawling geasses
  • Mild weakness in the distal hands
  • Causes
  • heart pain
  • heartbeat
  • Sensation of interruptions
  • dyspnea
  • chills, tremor
  • feeling of fear
  • irritability
  • sweating
  • Feeling heat
  • thirst

Danger of high pressure

Despite the asymptomatic flow, a long-term increase in blood pressure affects many target organs: brain, kidney, heart, eyes, vessels. Circulation instability in these organs against the background of increased blood pressure may cause the development of such complications as a myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, renal failure, lesion of organs of vision.

High top and bottom blood pressure

Normal arterial pressure of a healthy person is considered indicator 120 (upper systolic) and 80 (lower-diastolic) mm. RT. Art. respectively.

The degree of hypertension

1 The degree of hypertension: 140-159 / 90-99 mm.rt.st.

2 The extent of hypertension: 160-179 / 100-109 mm.rt.st.

3 The extent of hypertension: 180 and above / 110 and above mm.rt.st.

As prevention, the most simple and affordable method is the regular dimension of blood pressure. Currently, there are universal devices with AFIB technology, which can simultaneously measure the level of blood pressure and identify flickering arrhythmia.

What to do with high pressure?

In the treatment of arterial hypertension, the following classes of drugs are used: calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, alpha-1-adreneergic receptor blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers II. All drug preparations have indications and contraindications, side effects. Only a doctor should pick up drugs and the treatment regimen.

Help with an uncomplicated hypertensive crisis

  • Stop physical burden.
  • Sit down or lie down with a raised head, measure hell.
  • It is necessary to calm down and not to panic (you can take the tincture of valerian, mother-in-law).
  • Restore breathing - a few deep breaths and exhale.
  • When first in life, hypertensive crisis must necessarily call "ambulance".
  • Regardless of the type of hypertensive crisis, drug form preparations with the rapid attack of the expected effect and a short period of elimination should be used as self-help: 25 mg capitals; nifedipine 10 mg; Moxonidine 0.2-0.4 mg; Propranolol 10-40 mg.
  • If the level of blood pressure is not reduced or continues to increase, it is recommended to call "ambulance".

Hello, dear readers. Speaking about diseases of the cardiovascular system, it can be said that one of the most serious common diseases is currently arterial hypertension. High pressure, most often exceeding 140/90, is one of the main characteristics of this common disease. Often, high pressure suffer from people over forty, but in recent decades this diagnosis is also found in people of younger age. Hypertension with the same frequency is diagnosed by both men and women. Along with other common diseases, hypertension consider the main reason for the acquisition of disability among people around the world. In addition, arterial hypertension serves as one of the main causes of mortality of people in the world.

The reason for the occurrence of arterial hypertension can be considered most often a circulatory disorder, it may be under reduced pressure.

Cardic insufficiency can also be attributed to reasons that provoke the progression of hypertension, as a result of which such diseases that carry fatal hazards are developing as a stroke or heart attack.

And since the increased pressure is the cause of such serious and dangerous health problems, it is necessary that each person knows what kind of illness and, most importantly, how to win the victory over it.

Causes of high pressure in women and men

Currently, arterial hypertension extends with an unprecedented speed with the same frequency among both men and women.

Many of them do not even suspect their serious disease. But the heightened pressure can bring to such critical situations as ischemic damage to myocardium, hemorrhage in the brain, the development of renal failure.

The main causes of high pressure

- First of all, the state of our pressure depends on what we drink. If you don't drink clean water, replacing it with other drinks, then with the time of the body's tissues, blood is dehydrated and thickened. In this case, the blood vessels can be compared with the pipes for which the gel flows instead of fluid. Naturally, the load on the heart increases, thick blood is very hard and slowly passes.

Increased cholesterol content in blood Also affects blood pressure. Cholesterol is most often formed due to improper nutrition. Grease blood also becomes thick and to push the blood along the vessels, the heart begins to shrink and shrink faster.

Due to the increased content of protein in the blood, blood acquires viscosity. The protein thickens blood, the work of the heart is enhanced, which adversely affects pressure.

Excitement. There are people who, by virtue of their character or profession, are much nervous, worried, worry. Adrenaline, formed in the body, narrows the vessels and again the heart is difficult to push the blood.

High pressure

People suffering from excess weight, as a rule, suffer from high pressure because the body has a large amount of blood, naturally, the load on the heart and blood vessels is much higher.

Harmful habits also contribute to pressure increase. Nicotine and alcohol narrow vessels and form clocks in them.

High pressure - what to do at home - 10 tips

It often happens that the attack of a high blood pressure overtakes a person at home, and before the arrogant is still a long time.

How to urgently reduce blood pressure? Hypertensive should never forget that the pressure can jump at any time and anywhere, so you need to know the most simple ways to reduce the pressure.

1. The most important thing in such a situation is to try to relax. Then for ten minutes, perform respiratory gymnastics: breathing breath. This simple way will help reduce the pressure of about twenty-thirty units.

2. The first action that needs to be performed is to lie face down and attach to the cervical piece of ice or at least a cold wet towel. Then this place is lost in any oil. The result will not make yourself wait - the pressure will fall.

3. Methods of traditional medicine may be useful. It is possible to lower the pressure on the forty units with the help of a compress from napkins, supremely impregnated with apple vinegar. Such a compress must be attached to ten minutes to feet feet.

4. Another simple methods for lowering high pressure are common cold water. It is necessary to wash it, moisten abundantly to the shoulders, or lower the legs in the pelvis with cold water.

5. Hot mustard pieces attached to the shoulders or to the bottom of the neck are narrowing the vessels and after fifteen minutes later the pressure is reduced.

6. Hypertensions "with experience" for an instant pressure reduction are used by the following specific solution:

  • Mix the tincture of valocardine
  • Motherboard
  • Hawthorn and Valerians

A teaspoon of such a composition on 50 ml of water will reduce the pressure instantly.

7. A tincture of the calendula on alcohol helps very well. Daily use of twenty-thirty drops will lead pressure to normal.

8. Also hypertensive is useful to drink juice from a mixture of vegetables beets, carrots and cranberries with adding honey. But such a mixture helps if it is systematically consumed before meals.

9. Head massage in the field of temporal part, neck and collar zone is also reduced in a short time. After rubbing and strokes, complete peace and silence are needed for an hour.

10. The lack of potassium in the body also contributes to the increase in pressure. Therefore, hypertensive need to be introduced to your diet containing potassium. These are potatoes, tomatoes, legumes, dairy products, nuts.

These simple and accessible methods will help lower pressure at home.

How the heightened pressure is manifested - symptoms

People suffering from high arterial pressure, there are a lot in the world, about each of the ten.

And many of them do not even suspect their illness until an acute attack occurs. In many cases, a person does not even feel high pressure. This hypertension is dangerous.

Not in vain in the people, it is called the "quiet killer." Therefore, it is necessary to know exactly signs of increased pressure, which can lead to chronic form of hypertension.

Awareness in this area will help to begin treatment in time and be able to react in cases of sudden attacks.

Often, at elevated pressure, a person feels anxious feeling.

His sick, spinning or sings his head, the heart beats rapidly, sometimes even arise pain in the heart. A person is quickly tired, shortness of breath appears.

Nobody draws attention to these symptoms. But systematic manifestations of such must give a reason to appeal to the doctor.

Increased top pressure - what to do?

Therapists and endocrinologists allocate two levels of increased blood pressure:

Capital blood pressure, in everyday life it is called "top"

Systolic pressure is called pressure at the time of a reduction in the heart, that is, at that moment when trying to push the thick blood along the vessels, the heart bears the unbearable load.

If the systolic pressure of a person exceeds the figure 140, it means that such pressure is considered elevated.

Lower pressure - diastolic - usually normal, digit below 90

High systolic pressure is mainly distributed among people after the sixty years. Especially this diagnosis is characteristic of women of older age.

Systolic hypertension increases the risk of heart disease. Typically, the high upper pressure is reduced using drugs assigned by the attending physician.

But the most drugs will be effective if along with them adhere to a special diet and engage in healthy physical education.

In everyday life in the fight against high upper pressure, the following uncomplicated tips can help:

1. Reduce the core salt in the diet, the use of which leads to dehydration. This in turn thickens blood.

2. In the diet of the diet to remove a special place vegetables, fruits and berries, low-fat meat, fish.

3. Fully abandon bad habits.

4. To engage in improving physical education.

5. Do not deal with alone treatment, correct and efficient

Treatments will select a doctor.

6. Daily measure pressure and record arterial numbers

Pressure in the diary.

Reduced high pressure still helps lemon, which contains useful vitamins and trace elements.

Increased lower pressure - what to do?

The second or lower digit is considered an indicator of diastolic or as it is also called, lower blood pressure.

This is the force with which heart muscles and vessels relax. And low and high diastolic pressure indicate violations in the work of the cardiovascular system.

There are many reasons, but the main one is renal failure. Often, diastolic pressure increases precisely for diseases of the kidneys and adrenal glands. It is for this reason that the diastolic pressure has one more name: "renal".

With elevated diastolic pressure, a person has a feeling of fatigue and drowsiness. He is tormented by headaches.

In most cases, high-pressure people suffer in high lower pressure. Improper nutrition and harmful habits also contribute to the increase in diastolic pressure.

Also, high diastolic pressure is distributed to women during pregnancy, which is an extremely dangerous sign. Oxygen and nutrients necessary for the development of the fetus come with the blood of the mother not in full.

As with any other diseases, health will help keep a healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, rejection of bad habits.

High pressure and rapid pulse

Pulse is one of the main performance of the cardiovascular system. High pressure and rapid pulse are very dangerous signs testifying to the possible development of hypertension.

High pressure in itself already involves the increase in the pulse.

If a normal healthy person has a pulse frequency to range from seventy to ninety shocks, then when the pressure is attached, the pulse frequency can reach one hundred sixty.

The rapid pulse at elevated pressure speaks of hypertension or even a hypertensive crisis, that is, excessive excavation high pressure.

In this case, it is impossible to escape by the methods of traditional medicine or drugs. Usually in this situation, the patient is prescribed MRI, ultrasound, echoC.

Such disorders may be caused by excess weight, heredity, improper nutrition, alcohol abuse or tobacco, heavy loads, or, on the contrary, a sedentary lifestyle.

With this disease, a person often feels weakness in the body, strong headaches, can be short-term loss of consciousness.

The patient suffers from insomnia, disruption of the respiratory function. If you do not pay attention to these symptoms and engage in self-treatment, they can progress and lead to the development of concomitant diseases.

All sorts of heart disease, diseases of the respiratory system, oncological diseases.

How to reduce increased pressure by folk remedies

As mentioned, increased pressure is one of the most common and dangerous diseases in the world.

Modern medicine offers numerous drug preparations for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. At the same time, the phytotherapists note the important role of traditional medicine when combating high pressure.

Such drugs usually have a vegetable composition, do not contain chemicals and do not cause addiction.

Preparations of traditional medicine include herbal fees, scales and tinctures.

High pressure

Plants and herbs that can be useful in the treatment of hypertension can be collected by himself, and you can buy in a pharmacy, as in pharmacies now a large selection of phytoproducts.

Effective and useful plants such as:

  1. motherwort
  2. hawthorn
  3. Lamberry
  4. digitalis

In addition, you should not forget about the importance of nuts, honey, beets.

But it is worth remembering that the methods of traditional medicine will bring the desired effect only at the prevention stage. If the disease reached the crisis, medical care is needed here.

Medicines that reduce high pressure

Medicase treatment of hypertension is carried out only under the supervision of the doctor. All drugs should be prescribed taking into account the physiological characteristics of the body.

It is necessary to know that each medicine acts in its own way, may have side effects and cause allergies.

Here is a list of the most popular drugs that the doctor's appointment will help you in the fight against high pressure.

  • Bisoprolol
  • Adelphan.
  • Veroshpiron
  • Amlodipine
  • Validol.
  • Hypothiazide
  • Afobazol.
  • Dotroid
  • Anaprin
  • Kopoten.
  • DROTAVERIN
  • Lysinopril
  • Indapamide
  • Capropril
  • Concor
  • Kopoten.
  • Lorista
  • Corwalola.
  • Loased
  • Furosemid
  • Metoprolol
  • Nitrosorbid.
  • Nitroglycerine
  • ENAP
  • Preshaum
  • Egil
  • Papazole

But it is not necessary to get involved in either methods of traditional medicine nor medication methods.

It is worth remembering that the proper nutrition, the rejection of bad habits and a healthy lifestyle will help you keep your health!

Dangerous symptoms

The first help at high pressure should be provided competently and immediately. If there is no one next to this moment, a person who has started an attack of hypertension, should know how to behave in a similar situation, waiting for a medical team.

Often, elevated blood pressure is a patient simply not notic. He may not feel any signs of poor well-being or, by ignorance, do not associate them with hypertension. Especially such a "negligent" attitude towards himself is characteristic of people who first encountered such a phenomenon. Asymptomatic flow is usually characterized by the initial stage of the development of the disease. It is possible to notice an increase in pressure only measuring it. It is possible to accomplish with a tonometer.

If the device shows the numbers exceeding the permissible values ​​of normal pressure (139/90), then the first alarm signal has already sent the body. Of course, it can be a one-time and a slight rise, which sometimes happens from any person, it does not require medical care. You can check this, conducting a regular pressure measurement for a certain time. Noting episodes of the periodic deviation of its indicators from the norm, it is necessary to realize with all seriousness and adopt the fact of the presence of hypertension.

In order not to miss the starting hypertension, such symptoms cannot be left unpacrimated:

  • Headaches that can be felt in any zone are strong and moderate, long and parodious;
  • Often pain in the head area is connected with a sense of nausea, the appearance of vomiting;
  • The patient feels a hum in the ears, heaviness in the head, blood ripple in the temples;
  • The head is spinning, the land "leaves under his feet", in the eyes it darkens, especially if you get up to sit down or lying out of the position;
  • The heart whines and hurts, feels the heat and severity in the chest, pain can be squeezing;
  • heart rate rhythm is knocked down or reader;
  • It becomes difficult to breathe, as if there is not enough air;
  • There may be a heat or chills, trembling in the limbs, hands and legs are eaten and cold;
  • impairment of vision, flashing black specks arise before eyes, it is difficult to focus;
  • There is pain in the eyeballs;
  • Bleeding from the nose are possible;
  • problems with sleep;
  • nervous excitement manifested by irritation;
  • apathy, decay of forces, lethargy, drowsiness.

Usually you can cope with the manifestation of hypertension. Experienced hypertensives have a whole arsenal of proven medicines for these cases.

But there are cases when even they need an ambulance at high pressure.

If the indicators have risen to significant limits (30% higher than the usual level), you need to call an ambulance. For each person, the norm will be their own indicator, it may differ significantly from the generally accepted standards (120/80).

One will feel comfortable with a pressure of 135/85, another life lives with reduced pressure - 90/60. And for people with chronic hypertension, a minor increase in the tonometer indicators is practically normal, the vessels have already adapted to such a state. Therefore, the concept of "high pressure" is quite relative. The hypotonik will feel very bad already with the testimony of 140/90, and hypertensive will call an ambulance with experience, if the pressure "ties" to the mark higher than 180/110.

The reason for the first aid with hypertension should be the condition of the patient, and not the testimony of a tonometer: if a person feels bad, there is no one, but he himself is not able to help himself, then it is necessary to urgently cause a doctor.

Poor well-being at pressure can be expressed by the enhancement of headaches, vomiting, weakness bordering a fainted condition, the appearance of pellets in front of the eyes, strong pain in the heart. Symptoms that are typical with hypertension become pronounced, a person has a fear of death, it is difficult for him to breathe, it is covered with red spots.

Emergency challenge the ambulance brigade will need if the drugs adopted and other pressure reduction measures do not help, and also if a person has experienced a attack of hypertension for the first time.

Very dangerous phenomenon is a sudden sharp jump in the indicators to high limits. This condition is called a hypertonic crisis. In this case, the first assistance at high pressure should urgently be provided. What symptoms will indicate danger:

  • Unbearable headache, weakness, nausea;
  • Empty hands, legs, face, and often such symptoms are characteristic of one of the parts of the body: left or right;
  • Loss of view.

These are signs of a starting stroke, the outcome of which can become paralysis, coma, death.

But the symptoms that predict the development of a heart attack:

  • burning in the chest, not always in the heart area;
  • pain going into hand, shoulder or both hands;
  • Sometimes soreness is felt in jaws, teeth, in the field of blades or back;
  • It becomes difficult to breathe;
  • The appearance of a feeling of crowded stomach, heartburn, begins to hurt;
  • Interruptions with heart rhythm.

So manifests itself acute heart failure, which requires immediate medical care:

  • The scintion of fingertips on the legs and arms, blue in the field of lips;
  • severe shortness of breath;
  • arrhythmia;
  • the appearance of pink foam from the mouth;
  • coughing;
  • heartache.

With the development of complications of arterial hypertension, assistance is provided in different directions: a decrease in pressure and elimination of symptoms of a concomitant complication. In this case, they will need preparations to maintain the heart muscle or removing the brain edema.

Tablets and medicines

A quick way to help a person - give it the right pills. By defining with the choice of drugs that help with hypertension, one important rule must be remembered: a sharp drop in blood pressure level can only worsen the situation. It should be reduced gradually. It is good to choose such drugs, the effect of which appears short time after the reception, but the blood pressure will decrease smoothly, without jerks.

In hypertension, such groups of drugs are used:

  1. Calcium ion blockers that settle on vessel walls, increasing them in volume and causing pressure increases.
  2. ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-shut-off enzymes) block the production of an enzyme, which, causing certain conversion of substances in the body, contributes to the increase in pressure in humans.
  3. Diuretics - preparations that are withdrawn from the body. They normalize the work of the kidneys, eliminate swelling, reduce the pressure.

All three groups of drugs complement each other and act more efficiently with simultaneous sharing. They are presented with such drugs:

  1. "Amlodipine", "Felodipin".
  2. "Captive", "Enalapril", "Fozinopril".
  3. "Hydrochlorothiazide", "Indapamide".
Amlodipine

"Amlodipine" is characterized by a soft, smooth action. Vessel resistance decreases slowly, it helps to avoid reinforced heartbeat. The drug is used in ischemic heart disease. You can not use in case of reduced pressure, cardiogenic shock, myocardial infarction. The use of these tablets can cause side effects: pain in the heart or head, reinforced appetite, frequent urination.

"Captive" can be applied as first aid to a person with elevated pressure, as well as for the systemic treatment of hypertensive disease. Effectively reduces the pressure to permissible boundaries, acts in an hour or one and a half after the reception. The drug does not contribute to the fluid delay in the body, so it can be drunk without diuretic products. It facilitates the work of the heart, improves the functioning of the kidneys.

The "hydrochlorostiazide" displays the fluid, removes the swelling at elevated pressure, heart failure, renal failure. Side effects are possible: nausea, diarrhea, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, dizziness, violation of vision. It is not recommended to apply with liver failure, disorders of kidney functions, severe form of diabetes.

Emergency stages

Emergency care for arterial hypertension at home:

  1. It is necessary to calm down. If the self-sufficiency does not help, the panic attack will help tinctures of Valerians, mother-in-law, hawthorn; Corvalol or Validol can be adopted, they will help to eliminate heart pains or arrhythmias. This must be done, the increased nervous excitement enhances the attack of hypertension. Nitroglycerin will also help to lose heart pain.
  2. A person must take a comfortable position, sit down or lie down, while the head should be raised, and the legs on the contrary - it is better to lower down to ensure the outflow of blood from the head to the legs.
  3. If a trembling, the patient is shy, the hands and legs are frowning, you need to warm up, cover up the blanket, bite your legs.
  4. To warm the legs, you can use the heating floor, hot bath, put the mustard on the shin, just pour dry mustard in socks. Heat is a good distracting procedure, it will help expand the vessels, make the blood flip from the head vessels to the peripheral. To remove the headache and facilitate the general condition, you can put the mustarder to the head of the backbone.
  5. Be sure to provide the influx of fresh air, better than cool, to do this, open all the versions and windows in the room.
  6. Remove shy clothes, unbutton all belts and buttons, compressing the chest to make it easier to breathe.
  7. Take drugs that reduce pressure, if it is not the first attack of enhancement, and the pills are already prescribed by a doctor; Experiment, taking a new medicine, in which case it is not worth it. If the attack happened for the first time, it is better to wait for a doctor who himself will pick up medication treatment, or consult with an ambulance doctor by phone.

The effects of increased pressure

The whole organism suffers from hypertension, but the heart, kidney, brain, vision organs become the most vulnerable to the increase in pressure.

Brain . If the disease accepted a chronic form, the vessels lose their elasticity, as a result, the oxygen starvation of brain tissues is developing or violation of the integrity of vessels and hemorrhage is already a stroke.

A heart . Vascular disorders provoke the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary edema, cardiac asthma.

Complications of hypertensionKidney . Renal failure can become the result of increased pressure.

Eyes . In the retina, irreversible processes occur, hemorrhages are possible, retinal tissue detachment. The worst consequence is blindness.

Preventive measures should be taken to prevent all these troubles:

  • control the level of pressure (it must be done even an absolutely healthy person, and the pressure hypertension must be measured regularly);
  • optimize lifestyle: full sleep, labor and recreation, walking in the fresh air, the elimination of stressful situations, maximum positive emotions, rejection of bad habits (smoking, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, overeating);
  • be physically active (moderately), as it trains the heart and vessels, improves blood circulation, saturates the organism with oxygen;
  • reduce the amount of salt, oily, sharp, fried food, add fruits, vegetables, cereals, cereals in the diet;
  • It is necessary to fight completeness, because it can increase the pressure.

High blood pressure must be treated. The launched form of the disease leads to serious complications and significantly reduces human life.

First aid to increase pressure will give the opportunity to avoid severe consequences and can save from death. How to help yourself or suffering from hypertension is a close person, and maybe a random passing on the street, everyone should know.

How to reduce pressure

It is possible to quickly reduce the pressure at home even without tablets. To do this, calm down and make some deep breaths. Then, when health improves, you can take warm baths and drink useful herbal tea.

Content:

How to reduce pressure at home

First of all, it is necessary to measure the pressure to make sure that the symptoms caused (weakness, nausea, drowsiness, dizziness) are related to it. If the indicator is 130/85 and more, it is really high pressure, i.e. The state of hypertension. To cope with it, it is recommended:

  1. Seek or lie down, calm down, cover your eyes.

  2. Open the window, if hot - turn on air conditioning.

  3. Make a deep, smooth breath, having learned before 5. And in the breath, the stomach should be involved - to make sure that you need to put a hand on it. Make exhale and count again to 5. Repeat several such cycles for 3-5 minutes.

  4. Further, when the well-being improves, you need to pour in a basin feeling hot water (temperature 45 degrees) and put your feet for 5-10 minutes into it. To make a similar procedure and for hands. Thanks to this, the limb vessels will expand, and the pressure will fall into several units.

  5. Then you can hold your hands under the crane with cool (but not icy) water.

  6. At the final stage it is useful to make a massage of the collar zone - at the base of the neck, head, the shoulder area. After that, go to the stomach and chest.

How to reduce pressure without pills

Along with the described instructions for reducing pressure, you can use other domestic products:

  1. Warm, but not hot tea with mint leaves (brewed 10-15 minutes).

  2. Outdoor compress with apple vinegar - soak the fabric and attach it to the feet at the same time. This method gives effect, but it is necessary to use apple, not another vinegar.

  3. Valerian or Corvalol - 15-30 drops on 3 tablespoons of water. It helps calm down, so the indicator stabilizes.

  4. You can take a glass of warm water with 1 tablespoon of honey and a half teaspoon of freshly squeezed lemon juice. And instead of ordinary water, you can use mineral.

  5. Also reduced pressure will help and diuretic tea, for example, based on the fruits of lingonberry, rosehip, leaf of the tocherry, as well as linden colors.

It is important to understand that the measures described help stabilize pressure only for a while. Therefore, in the long run, the lifestyle should be adjusted, abandon the bad habits, comply with the requirements for the diet and lose weight. So, one dropped in excess weight kilogram leads to a resistant pressure reduction per 1 point.

10 products that reduce pressure

Hypertensive is worth adjusting the power, including useful products in the diet, which contribute to a decrease in blood pressure. It should be borne in mind that the unlimited consumption of one or another meal can lead to complications from the digestive system. Therefore, before drawing up a diet, it is worth consulted with a doctor.

A healthy person is recommended in moderate quantities to consume such products:

  1. Broccoli - The cabbage includes substances that not only reduce pressure, but also prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that damage vessels.

  2. Pomegranate juice - it needs to be used in the amount of not more than half a day. Moreover, it is recommended to dilute with water in a 1: 1 ratio.

  3. Red fish of any species contains polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They strengthen the walls of the vessels, which leads to normalization of pressure. For maximum benefit, fish should be bake or cook, not fry.

  4. Dairy products serve as a source of trace elements like magnesium, potassium and calcium. Especially useful cottage cheese, cheeses of various species.

  5. Black beans also contains many magnesium compounds that contribute to the extension of the vessels and thereby reduce the pressure.

  6. Oatmeal increases vessel elasticity. At the same time, it is best not instant, and the porridge category "Extra" No. 1.

  7. Coffee, in contrast to a common opinion, increases the pressure slightly only in the first minutes. After that, the pressure is reduced. However, it is not necessary to abuse the drink, since coffee has a strong diuretic effect and in large concentrations can lead to a significant increase in the indicator.

  8. Bulgarian (sweet) red pepper contains a large amount of vitamin C, which also contributes to the normalization of blood pressure.

  9. Pumpkin seeds are rich in zinc, whose deficit can lead to a heart attack. To replenish the daily need to eat 20 g of seeds (in terms of purified grains).

  10. Consumption of green tea contributes to the destruction of atherosclerotic plaques, which strengthens the vessels and again allows normalize the pressure.

There are other products useful to regulate the indicator. For example, doctors recommend to use cocoa, natural dark chocolate, almonds and walnuts.

What can not be done at high pressure

First of all, hypertensive needs to be limited or abandoning the consumption of harmful food (excessively salted, acute, oily, as well as flour products). Also worth adjusting the lifestyle:

  • regular walks in air;

  • Regular satisfying physical activity;

  • normal labor and rest mode;

  • Full sleep at least 7-8 hours per day;

  • Refusal of smoking and alcohol (strong drinks are especially harmful);

  • Restriction on hiking in the bath, steam rooms, etc.

In some cases, it is advisable to change the work. Frequent physical and psychological loads, stressful conditions lead to problems in the work of the heart and vessels, including increase in pressure.

Increased pressure is a common symptom with which people often face people. Some do not feel it at all, so for years they live with the hurt. Someone by contrast attaches significance even slightly shameless values ​​that are situational, temporary nature and do not require special measures.

The article will tell about what is "top" and "lower" pressure, how to recognize dangerous bells and what to do about it.

Arterial pressure

Blood pressure (blood pressure) is a pressure that blood has on the walls of blood vessels. This is one of the vital health indicators. It is measured in millimeters of a mercury pillar (mm Hg. Art.) And interpreted on the basis of two values:

  • systolic pressure indicator ("Upper"): blood pressure at the moment when your heart is reduced and pushes blood in artery;

  • The diastolic pressure indicator ("lower") is blood pressure at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle between two abbreviations.

The ratio of these indicators is usually considered in the context of norms, pathology or temporary violation.

The level of arterial pressure is individual for each age and gender. But a general reference to the assessment of hell is considered to be the Scale of the World Health Organization.

Violations in the work of the circulatory system, and together with it, cardiac activity with arterial pressure can occur in a person regardless of gender and age. However, it should be understood in which high pressure is associated with the development of the disease, and in what jumping hell are situationally (emotional shock, alcohol and tobacco use, nervous voltage, active physical activity).

In a healthy person with age, it is permissible to increase the values ​​of the norm by 10-15 mm mercury pillar. If the age increase in pressure marked with a sharp jump, frequent attacks of hypertension, then this is not connected with age, but often with the development of the disease of the cardiovascular system. Ignore such symptoms and wait until the age stabilization of blood pressure occurs is dangerous.

Causes of increased pressure

Depending on which of the two pressure indicators is elevated (upper or lower), it is customary to consider the status of health.

The total reasons for high pressure include:

  • Stay in a state of long, chronic stress and nervous voltage;

  • short-term splashes of emotional or mental activity, since adrenaline (stress hormone) accelerates the work of the heart, affecting the tone of blood vessels;

  • The high concentration of sodium and calcium in the blood, at which the frequent spasmodization of the smooth muscles occurs, from which the "Watchman" is the entire vascular system.

  • High cholesterol, formation and accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of the vessels, which over time leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the vessels, due to which the blood flow is broken. The heart in this case is forced to work with effort to promote blood according to vessels, which causes the development of chronic hypertension.

  • Regular use of alcohol, tobacco, smoking mixtures, psychotropic substances. Under the influence of the chemical composition of which the oscillations of the tone of the vessels occur, the work of the kidney and other organism systems is disturbed.

  • Course or frequent reception of drugs: oral contraceptives, drugs that are overwhelming appetite, glucocorticoids.

  • Sugar diabetes, diseases of the kidneys and liver, diseases of the thyroid gland

  • Overweight and low-active lifestyle, asthenia

  • Blood thickening and dehydration that create difficulties for cardiovascular system in blood pumping

  • Violation of the power mode, consumption of mineral salts, smoked sharp dishes on a regular basis

  • The diseases of the spine, in which the nerve roots are pinched, an increase in muscle tone, which lead to a violation of blood supply to the vessels.

  • heredity

However, looking at the indicators of measuring instruments, it should be distinguished by the high top pressure from the high lower. Because the risks of health complications, and a selection of therapy depend on it.

High top pressure

With increasing the indicator of the upper (systal) pressure, new headaches appear, with the emerging ripple. Can be felt pressure on the eyeballs, a feeling of the female swelling.

On features high upper pressure similar to intracranial pressure. Which develops as a consequence of violation of the circulation of the spinal fluid.

  1. If the upper pressure is raised, a violation of heart rhythm (arrhythmia), and breast pain may be observed. Some in the presence of such symptoms can panic and write off their appearance on heart problems.

  2. With increasing pressure of up to 150 mm RT. Art. An adult can develop hypertensive crisis, due to which pathological changes in the coronary arteries and the muscles of the heart occur.

  3. angina develops, the left ventricle increases and the cardiac output is reduced, therefore heart failure develops, and with it there are risks of the development of myocardial infarction.

High lower pressure

The lower pressure means pressure in the vessels during the maximum relaxation of the heart, before the new reduction. The increase in this indicator means that liquid is poorly removed from the body. The lower pressure is also called "renal". The kidneys, passing blood through itself, perform the role of the filter, regulate the water-salt balance of the body and remove toxins from the blood along with the urine. If the lower pressure indicator fails, then the violations should be seen in the kidneys, which for some reason can not cope with their work.

Symptoms of increased pressure

Specific symptoms typical of hypertension. Therefore, sometimes, it would seem, strokes and heart attacks even in young people occur without visible causes and disturbing bells. And those symptoms that may indicate high pressure are ignored.

Among the common:

  • Headache in temporal or occipital head

  • dizziness

  • Weakness and tremor

  • nausea

  • dyspnea

  • worsening vision, flickering "flies" before your eyes

  • tachycardia

  • Outlet (in case of increasing the lower pressure)

How to reduce high pressure at home

High pressure is a very serious symptom. Therefore, any therapy should be appointed strictly under control and on the recommendation of a specialist!

However, duty drugs from pressure should be in a home first-aid kit, especially if there are real prerequisites.

  • If the increase in pressure is situational and caused by an emotional or nervous shock. First of all, you should lead to balance of breathing, find ways to calm down and relax. From medicines you can use: sedatives of plant origin, for example: new-passite, perrsen, Valerian Tab, Ecstark ethereal Tab and others.
  • To reduce the pressure in the composition of complex therapy or as an independent agent, diuretics can be used: their selection and purpose, as well as the choice of dosage is carried out by the doctor.
  • If hypertension is a prescribed chronic disease and the next attack happened, it is important to adopt as quickly as possible: the preparation of emergency assistance captopril 25mg under 0.5-1 tab, and consult a doctor as soon as possible.

High pressure prophylaxis

High Pressure Prevention Important Measure Prevention of Hazardous States and Negative Health Consequences. Attentive attitude to its body will protect it from dangerous diseases of the cardiovascular system. Considering that any disease can be burdened by unfavorable heredity, then the issue of the prevention of systemic diseases is important to approach especially carefully.

Primary high-pressure prophylaxis

The primary prevention of hypertension implies warning measures regarding blood violations in principle, an exception to the lifestyle of potential risk factors: harmful habits, excessive physical exertion, uncontrolled mode and diet.

Secondary high-pressure prophylaxis

Under the secondary prophylaxis means control of an already existing disease and strengthening the remission of a hypertensive disease, the exclusion of the risk of the development of ischemic heart disease, heart attack, stroke. In addition, the lifestyle correction measures includes medicinal, vitamin health support, physiotherapy. At the expense of great opportunities for modern production, medical equipment physiotherapy can be carried out at home.

A major role in the prevention of high pressure plays such a concept as psychohygin. Which implies a reduction in psychological and emotional tensions, minimizing stressful situations and the ability to react correctly to them.

Be healthy!

Have questions? Specify them in the comments, we will answer!

What pressure is considered high

The perception of increased blood pressure from different people may differ. For example, in some patients discomfort occurs already at 130/85 mm. RT. Art., While other even pressure 145/95 does not cause well-being changes. In medicine there is a diagnosis of "arterial hypertension", which involves an increase in systolic pressure from 140 mm. RT. Art. and and / or 90 mm. RT. Art. And above - diastolic. Values ​​are two, because the heart in humans is reduced (then blood pressure becomes higher), it relaxes (pressure becomes lower). Reducing the muscles of the heart and blood discharge is called systole (from here "systolic" pressure), and relaxation and filling of the heart cavity with blood - diastole (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. The work of the heart is systole and diastole. Source: Prog. Biophys. MOL. Biol. 2018, 138, 45-58

It is important to understand that the criteria for arterial hypertension are largely conditional. Moreover, even normal pressure has several gradations (Table 1)

Table 1. Classification of blood pressure levels (mm. Hg. Art.) * Isolated systolic AG, in turn, is divided into three degrees, depending on how increased systolic blood pressure.
Categories Hell Systolic hell Diastolic hell
Optimal below 120. below 80.
Normal 120-129 80-84
High normal 130-139 85-89
Arterial Hypertension 1 degree 140-159 90-99
Arterial hypertension of 2 degrees 160-179 100-109.
Arterial Hypertension 3 degrees 180 and higher 110 and higher
Isolated systolic arterial hypertension 140 and above below 90.

How to measure pressure

You can measure the pressure at home yourself using a special instrument - a tonometer. High pressure can be a danger to health, so the tonometer should be in each home first aid kit. Tonometers are two types:

  1. Mechanical. Old kind classic. Less convenient to use, but give a more accurate result.
  2. Electronic (automatic and semi-automatic - Fig. 2). Work from batteries. The main advantage - you do not need to independently listen to heart blows (which is sometimes quite difficult to do because of the weak pulse filling). But there are such devices and a big minus - the measurement results are not always accurate. When repeated measurement, the numbers may differ slightly.
Figure 2. Electronic automatic tonometer. Source: CCH0 Public Domain

How to use a mechanical tonometer

In order to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer (video 1), you need:

  • sit in a comfortable position and relax, the hand should be bent in the elbow joint and lie on a flat surface,
  • The shoulder part of the hand is free from clothes and fix the cuff on it (its lower edge should be above the elbow bend by 3-4 cm),
  • Install the stethoscope (phonenadoscope) on the inside of the bending of the elbow joint in the place where the pulse is best suited,
  • With the help of a hand pump, start downloading the air into the cuff,
  • The pressure gauge arrow to bring to the values ​​exceeding the estimated pressure of 30-40 mm. RT. Art. (for example, if the normal pressure of the patient is 135/90, then you can stop on the figure 170),
  • slowly produce air from the cuff, waiting for the appearance of the tones - these are heartbeat sounds; Their appearance denotes the systolic pressure boundary, and the disappearance is diastolic. Simply put, if the tones appeared on the number 150 and disappeared on the figure 100, then the result is 150/100).

Video 1. How to measure pressure to a mechanical tonometer.

In the absence of stethoscope, the top (systolic) pressure can be measured by following the arrow behavior. It is necessary to notice the testimony when it starts to twitch. However, this method is not very reliable, as often the arrow begins to lift up to the first strong audible blows of the pulse.

If you want to visit the toilet before measuring the pressure, then it is better not to refuse this in this, since the overcrowded bladder contributes to an increase in pressure by about 10 points. It is also important not to measure immediately after intensive exercise or immediately after sleep. If the pressure is too high or too low, the result is to double-check 3 times with an interval of 5-10 minutes. After that, calculate the average values ​​- this is your result. Morning pressure must be measured before and after breakfast, also considering the average indicator.

The effects of increased pressure

High pressure is dangerous primarily by the fact that blood vessels lose their elasticity, and this can lead to their rupture and stroke (violation of the blood supply of the brain). In addition, an increase in blood pressure is fraught with the development of the following complications:

  • violation of vision due to the deterioration of the rifle blood supply,
  • Full loss of vision as a result of hemorrhage in the vitreous body and / or retina,
  • Angina - pain in the heart due to the violation of the blood supply to myocardium,
  • Hypertrophy of the left ventricle hearts,
  • heart attack - the death of the heart muscle site as a result of the violation of its blood supply,
  • heart failure - a cycle of systole-diastole is disturbed, which we wrote above, which leads to a deterioration in blood outflow and ventricular filling,
  • renal failure - develops as a result of the deterioration of the kidneys,
  • deterioration of the overall state of the nervous system (irritability, fast fatigue, a tendency to depression),
  • Violations of the brain as a result of the deterioration of the state of cerebral vessels can be fraught with a decrease in intellectual abilities until the development of the so-called vascular dementia (dementia, which has become the result of chronic brainwater failure).

Dangerous symptoms

In some people, the pressure increases asymptomatic, but in most cases the following signs are noted:

  • weakness and fast fatigue
  • gouring or pulsating headache in the occipital and / or temporal part,
  • nausea,
  • dizziness,
  • Breast pain,
  • noise in ears,
  • shortness of breath with the usual exercise,
  • numbness of the limbs
  • worsening vision, flickering "flies" before your eyes,
  • irritability,
  • Increased sensitivity to light (sometimes to sounds).

The appearance of even one or two of the symptoms listed above should be a reason for concern. Some people prefer simply "Thread" an episode of increased pressure "In order not to poison all this chemistry" (that is, pills). But it is impossible to ignore such manifestations, since, as we have spoken above, the increased pressure is fraught with a number of hazardous consequences.

Domestic pressure reduction

Many people who have not previously experienced problems with pressure or simply not paying attention to headache and other symptoms, usually do not know what to do if the testimony of the tonometer confirmed unpleasant fears. The main rules of behavior: calm and deep breathing. To make the brain easier to get oxygen, the apartment hypertension should be well ventilated. Cold compress on the neck and forehead will help facilitate the condition.

As a single aid, it is possible to take the drug from the group of blockers of angiotensin-converting enzyme in combination with an anesthetic drug (paracetamol, ibuprofen). However, cardiologists are not advised to be treated in this way on a regular basis. The choice of medicines to reduce pressure should be consistent with the doctor - it is he who will help to choose the necessary drug that should always be in a home first-aid kit.

Tablets and medicines

Preparations for reducing pressure are divided into several groups. Let's analyze them in detail.

APF inhibitors

Inhibitors of an angiotensin glossy enzyme are one of the most popular drugs in the treatment of hypertension. These drugs prevent the transformation of angiotensin 1 enzyme to angiotensin 2, which narrows the lumen of the vessels. The mechanism is simple: vessels are not narrowed - pressure is not growing. Among the ACE inhibitors also exists its gradation:

  1. Preparations of the first generation: captopril, Benazepril, Zofensoid.
  2. Second-generation preparations: Leisinopril, Ramipril, Enalapril.
  3. Third-generation preparations: monopril, fozinap, fozinotek.

Alpha adrenoblocators

A sympathy-adrenal system is responsible for changing blood pressure in the body. Adrenaline and hypothalamus are produced in adrenaline and hypothalamus - neurotransmitters that regulate the work of the cardiovascular system among other things. They stimulate the frequency of heart cuts and contribute to the increase in pressure.

Alpha-adrenoblockers, as can be guessing from the name, help reduce the sensitivity of specific alpha receptors to adrenaline and norepinephrine, due to which the blood pressure is reduced. The most famous drugs are doxazozin, prazozin.

Beta adrenoblocators

Unlike alpha-adrenoblockers, the drugs of this group block beta receptors, located not only in the arteries, but also in the heart. The principle of action is the same, as well as the therapeutic effect: extension of blood vessels, relief of blood flow and subsequent pressure reduction, as well as a reduction in the frequency and strength of the reduction of the heart muscle. Preparations:

  • Bisoprolol,
  • Betaxolol,
  • Metoprolol,
  • Nebivolol.

Diuretics

Due to its diuretic effect of diuretics, reduce the load on the heart. In addition, they have a vasodilatory effect, which, as we already know, is also used to reduce pressure. The opinions of specialists regarding the use of diuretics to reduce pressure are diverged: Some consider them the preparations of the first line along with the adrenoblockers, others are convinced that the use of diuretic drugs in the treatment of hypertension is yesterday, since the drugs of this group violate the electrolyte balance. The following groups of diuretics are distinguished:

  1. Loop. Have a strong but short-term effect. In the treatment of arterial hypertension, they are used in patients with renal failure. Most often used Furosemid, Toramsemed.
  2. Potassy-saving. Unlike other diuretics, do not remove potassium from the body, although the diuretic effect they have a little weaker. Preparations: spironolactone, amyloride.
  3. Tiazid. This type of diuretic is used in the treatment of hypertension most often. Under the strength of the action is inferior to loop, but exceed the potassium-saving diuretics. The most common preparations: hydrochlorothiazide, cycloptentiazide.
  4. Osmotic. This type of diuretics in hypertension is prescribed much less and usually used in inpatient treatment. Most often apply sorbitol, mannitol.

Calcium antagonists

Since the calcium balance and its excess in the blood plasma is considered a predisposing factor in the increase in pressure, the drugs of this group are actively used in the treatment of hypertension. They prevent the flow of calcium into the cells, thereby normalizing blood pressure. And here there is its graduation:

  1. Dihydropyrin: amlodipine, nifedipine.
  2. Phenylaclamines: Verapamil, Gallopamil.
  3. Benzodiazepines: Diltiazem, Klentyaze.

Cardiac drugs at high pressure

In hypertension, ACE inhibitors, alpha-adrenoblastors, beta-adrenoblays and calcium antagonists are used - all of them relate to "cardiac" drugs, since they are prescribed in the treatment of such pathologies such as ischemic heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction and chronic heart failure. In addition to the above-listed medications, you can add here:

  • Lercanidipine,
  • Valsartan,
  • Alisian
  • Carvedilol.

Folk remedies for rapid pressure reduction

If there are no medication at hand, and the increase in pressure does not pull on hypertensive crisis, you can use folk methods, although in efficiency they are inferior to drug treatment. Here are some of the most common ways:

  • Mustard pieces for the shin. Due to the inflow of blood to the legs, a slight hypotensive effect is achieved.
  • Compress with apple vinegar. A folded gauze or towel is wetted in an apple vinegar and applied to the feet. From the point of view of evidence-based medicine, the method is dubious, however, some patients assure that it gives effect.
  • Breathing exercises. Within a few minutes you need to do slow breaths and exhalations, taking a comfortable position and closing your eyes. Exhalation should be made by stomach, not a breast. This removes the nervous voltage and improves peripheral blood supply.
  • The pressure also helps to reduce the collar zone massage. However, in contrast to the classic embodiment, the movement during stroking should be performed with a slightly large pressure and go down - from the neck to the lower back.

Urgent care

With a significantly elevated pressure, the patient must first calm down, and then - ensure the influx of fresh air to the room and take a convenient position. Clothing must be free, special attention should be paid to the collar.

The sequence of actions to facilitate the status of hypertension is very simple:

  1. Calm down, do not panic.
  2. Organize fresh air access (open the window, go outdoors).
  3. Optimize breathing (deep breath, delay, exhale).
  4. To impose a cold compress on the forehead, whiskey and the rear surface of the neck.
  5. Take a soothing agent: from 50 to 100 drops of walkedordin or Corvalol, extract, or dye tincture (valerian).
  6. Wait 20-30 minutes, again measure the pressure.
  7. In the case of increased pressure, adopt the drug to reduce pressure (for example, from the group of Blockers of ACE).

When you need to call an ambulance

If 30-40 minutes after receiving the medication, the state does not improve, you should call the ambulance brigade. Indications for the call - pressure from 180/110 and higher, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, rapid heartbeat and sore pain. You need to call the number 003 or 112 and describe the dispatcher in detail all the symptoms.

Hypertension injections

Injections are used in hypertensive crises (severe condition caused by an increase in pressure from 180/110 and higher) to quickly reduce pressure. During the Soviet Union, a favorite means of ambulance doctors in such situations was a combination of papaverine, sodium metamizol and diphenhydramine, known as "Troinch". It is also applied now, but modern cardiologists insist that it is not necessary to prick this mixture to all in a row: first of all it is important to find out the reason for a sharp increase in pressure - this will help choose the drug correctly.

For example, if the attack provoked a strong nervous voltage, then the drug selection will be diazepam (it is introduced both intramuscularly and intravenously). With a convulsive form of a chisosis to diazepam, the so-called hot blade is connected - magnesium sulfate (intravenously slow).

Hypertensive crisis can be due to excessive accumulation of fluid (swelling, or water-salt form). In this case, the injection of furosemide is done in combination with nifedipine (subhist).

With a neurovegetative form (adrenal crisis), approximately nifedipine is used to begin with, and in the absence of the expected effect, the clonidine is injected.

Prevention

Preventive measures with inclination to elevated pressure include nutritional correction and lifestyle. This is how it looks in practice.

Diet

It is necessary to limit the consumption of salts and products rich in sodium (fatty meat, seafood, eggs). Alcohol, coffee and energy drinks are also not recommended for use. The diet should be enriched with vegetable fiber and low-fat milk-like products. It is also necessary to use more products rich in potassium (bananas, spinach, garlic).

Lifestyle

It is strongly recommended to refuse smoking. You must learn to avoid stress and sleep at least 8 hours a day. To strengthen the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to join moderate physical exertion, since hypodymna is one of the predisposing factors. In addition, physical activity in combination with healthy diet helps to normalize body weight. This is an urgent question, since people with overweight are predisposed to hypertension. With caution, nasal sprays should be applied - they contribute to the increase in pressure (not to mention the ability to cause addiction). It is recommended to take such dietary supplements such as L-carnitine, hawthorn extract, coenzyme Q10 and fish oil.

Conclusion

From the point of view of modern medicine, the pressure from 140/90 and higher is considered increased, but this is a fairly conditional criterion, since many patients even 130/85 cause a tangible deterioration of well-being. People prone to hypertension should always have medicines in a home aid kit to reduce pressure appointed by the doctor. For the prevention of hypertension, it should be abandoned by bad habits, maintain physical activity, avoid stress and adhere to a healthy power scheme.

Sources

  1. Yu.N. Fedulaev, A.V. Fandev, N.V. Baltic // arterial hypertension
  2. I.E. Schazova, L.G.ratova, S.A. Baktsov, D.V.Nibereydze // Diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension
  3. IG Menshikova, E.V. Magalyas // Clinic, Diagnosis, Principles of Treatment and Prevention of Arterial Hypertension

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