In the old days of Santa Claus, children not only loved, but also were afraid. In the 17th century, Santa Claus depicted a little dwarf, which at night climbed into the house through the chimney, a fireplace or a chimney. In the fireworks left by the fireboxes, Santa Claus left gifts to children - someone toys and sweets, and someone is a jerk twig, twig, for bad behavior. The children were afraid of him and preferred not to see his appearance at night ... ..
Psychologists noted that many children frightened by parents suffered Clausophobia - pathological fear of Santa Claus. Looking at these old photos, it becomes clear why Children so afraid of an ominous old man with rugs, clouded in salty water and a bag with toys, From which it is unknown what can be expected.
Later adults decided that Santa Claus would be only kind and would give children gifts in Christmas . St. Claus is accompanied by the Cosmonate, horned and angry Krampus, which scares and punishes and punishes and capricious children, promises to plant naughty Shaluns in a bag, carry into his cave and eat them in Christmas dinner. Legendary Alpine German Folklore Character Krampus - Krampus, In Austria - Klaubauf, in Hungary - Krampusz (Devil), in the Czech Republic - CEMPR, in Slovenia - Parkelj.
When did Santa Claus appear?
In the 17-18 century Santa Claus looked much of the harsh of the present, he was depicted by a wrinkled old man who smoked the tube stuffed with a strong tobacco, was swept away and wore glasses.
Santa Claus in advertising Sugar plums - 1868
In 1868, in advertising "Sugar plums" - Santa Claus is already dressed in red iconic clothes and on a deer sledding.
A few years later, in 1881, the artist Chris Kryngle depicted a cheerful old Santa Claus the same as Thomas Nasta (Thomas Nast), but added an image with a smoking tube and ruddy cheeks, a fur red costume and a hat. Chris Kryngl called him "Merry Old Santa" - Merry Old Santa.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Santa Claus began to appear in the books, in advertising and covers of magazines, which we used to see it today. Although at the beginning of the 20th century, the color of Santa Claus clothes, still, was the case of the artist.
In 1902 Santa Claus first appeared in the cartoon in the form of a small elf, squeezing on tiptoe to the fireplace. Bag with santa claus gifts is filled with toys.
In 1906. In the Canadian Christmas catalog of Santa Claus is depicted with a cap and in the familiar red dress as today.
In December 1913, on the American cover "Life Magazine" depicts two boycuts saving Santa Claus, stuck in a snowdrift. Apparently, his sleighs turned over and all the gifts fell into the snow.
At the Japanese postcard of 1914 with Santa Claus, depicted in a short red jacket, spidered by the belt, in red harees, refilled in boots. Santa Claus unleashed his bag and folds toys by the fireplace, and one of the kids spacins him.
In 1918, Santa Claus participates in the rally for Christmas for the US Food Administration.
In 1920, Coca-Cola - Coca-Cola Company began Christmas advertising to its products using the image of Santa Claus drawn by Thomas Nasta. In 1920 - 1930, in advertising, Coca-Cola Santa Claus is depicted in a red suit with a bottle of carbonated coca-cola in his hands.
Thanks to the artist Haddon Sandblom (Haddon Sandblom), Coca-Cola began to portray Santa Claus, a donant toys, playing with children and reading their letters, these images of Santa Claus later began to print on calendars, posters and postcards, which today became collectibles today.
In 1920-1922 Two drawings of the artist were published Norman Stokeell where Santa Claus is depicted at different moments of his saturated life - reading, writing, work on painting a house of dwarfs.
In 1930, Santa Claus appears on the cover of the Queenslander magazine in a red coat, a hat and boots, and with a bag behind the shoulders.
In 1942. At the Poster of Emergency Management and in the US military industry, Santa Claus called to the army, changed him into a military uniform and handed it to him. Santa Claus on the American Poster stands for hostilities in the Second World War and goes to Christmas to the soldiers to the front.
1942 on the American Emergency Situations Poster of Santa Claus proclaims the "world worldwide" in Christmas.
On December 6, Catholics of Europe celebrate the birthday of the Good St. Claus, who loves children and distributes gifts to obedient children.
Modern Santa Claus always looks equally - this is a cheerful man in a red jacket, spiderman and red pants, refilled in boots or high shoes. Santa Claus, still, wears glasses, gloves, white gray beard and mustache, and on his head it will put a long night red cap hanging. Santa Claus loves to open a tube with tobacco, travels on the sleds harvested by the eight of the rapid deer, and the gifts of children decorates in children's stockings or socks waves in the house by the fireplace.
Saint Claus accompanies the asked, horned and Evil Krampus. Which scares and punishes and capricious children, promises to put the naughty Shaluns into the bag, carry into their cave and eat them in Christmas dinner. The legendary character of the Alpine German folklore Krampus - Krampus, in Austria - Klaubauf, in Hungary - Krampusz (Devil), in the Czech Republic - CEMPR, in Slovenia - Parkelj.
In contrast to Santa Claus, Russian Santa Claus carries a long warm fur coat, confused by white fur and subjected to the cut. Santa Claus's feet in warm felt boots, on the head a warm fur hat - "Scythian cap", on the hands of warm mittens, on the shoulder bag with gifts. Santa Claus accompanies his granddaughter Snow Maiden. Santa Claus lives in his big estate in Veliky Ustyug, where children send their letters with wishes. Santa Claus and Snow Maiden ride the sleigh harvested by the top of the horses.
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Santa Claus (eng. Santa Claus. ) - Western Analog of St. Nicholas, Western European and North American fabulous (folk) character, which gives gifts to children to Christmas.
There is no consensus on the fact that the birthplace of Santa Claus should be considered: Lapland or the closest neighborhood of the North Pole [four] .
Saint Nikolai throws a purse to poor girls. Engraving 1587
Sentimental Santa Claus. 1889.
The prototype of Santa Claus (Santa - "Saint", Klaus - Nikolai) is the general Christian Saint Nicholas, or Nikolai Mirlijsky, the bishop of Lycian world (approx. 270-ok. 345). According to life, Saint Nicholas at night threw a wallet with money into the house of some poor town-dweller, who, having three daughters and having money for the dowry, conceived to sell one of them into a public house to be able to issue the rest (children say just about a secret gift On the dowry a poor girl.) [four] [five] . There was a legend on Western European soil that Saint Nicholas threw a wallet to the fireplace pipe and he fell into a stocking left for drying before the fireplace  . Initially on December 6, on the day of St. Nicholas on the church calendar, in Europe countries, it was customary to give children gifts from his behalf, with what gifts were put up at night in stockings. However, during the reformation, when the conviction of the saints was not approved  In Germany and neighboring countries, a character that gives gifts, became the baby Christ, and the day of their presentation was postponed from 6 to December 24, that is, at the time of Christmas fairs. In the period of counter-reformation, gifts to children were awarded again on behalf of St. Nicholas, but now it happened already at the end of December, for Christmas. But in some European countries, older traditions remain in force. So, in the Netherlands, where the name of St. Nicholas is pronounced as Sictlas, kids can receive gifts from his behalf on December 5, and for Christmas.
It is thanks to the Dutch colonists who founded the settlement in the 1650s a new Amsterdam, now turned into the city of New York, the image of St. Nicholas hit the North American continent. It should be noted that the English Puritans who mastered North America, Christmas did not celebrate  .
In 1809, the "History of New York" American Washington Irving Writer, in which he told about the times of Dutch rule, mentioning the custom of honoring St. Nicholas in New Amsterdam.
Santa Claus in the picture of Thomas Nasta (1881). Poet Clement Clark Moore and the artist T. Vot Have a strong impact on modern ideas about this character[four]
In 1822, a teacher of Eastern and Greek literature at Columbia University Clement Clark Moore composed for his children a poetry Christmas fairy tale, telling about Santa Claus - a fabulous character, giving gifts  . On the Christmas Eve of 1823, the poem was published in the Sentinel newspaper called "Night before Merry Christmas, or the visit of St. Nicholas"  . It became very popular, the poem was reprinted in 1844. In the documentary program "Santa Legends", published in the 2000s on the American TV channel History Channel, was stated [four] : "Thanks to Peru Clement Moore, Saint Nikolay turned into Santa Claus" and "By 1840, almost all Americans knew who Santa Claus. This funny old man gave us Clement Moore. " In the same poem, for the first time, eight of the classical nine deer of Santa Claus were mentioned.
In 1863, the famous American artist Thomas, who worked in the magazine Harper's Weekly, used Santa Claus character, drawn by the book of Clarker Moura Clarke, in the series of their political cartoons - in the form of a hero, giving gifts. The character acquired popularity, and later the NAS released a lot of fun drawings for children with merry scenes from Santa Claus - in the magazine "Harper Wickley" and other publications. In his drawings, the santa santa was painted in detail in detail.
The artist first mentioned that Santa lives in the North Pole and leads a special book where children are written and bad actions [four] . In the picture drawings, you can trace the gradual transformation of the appearance of Santa: from a thick elderly elf in a fur suit to a more realistic and fun-handwork in a sermon. As the History Channel TV channel indicates, "Santa Claus sized the Santa Claus." The artist was a strong man with a small height, with large mustes and a wide beard.
It should be noted that the original Santa serrated coat in the figures of NAST was brown, but almost immediately, during the release of new drawings, began to acquire a reddish tint. The red-coat of Santa does not bear any semantic load, - notes History Channel in his study "Santa legend" [four] .
In 1931, Coca-Cola launched an advertising campaign to increase the sales of soft drinks in the winter. At the same time, she proposed a more modern appearance of Santa, developed by Haddon Sandblom. It is this painter that owns the merit of creating an image of charming Santa Claus, recognizable and very popular worldwide  . Its images have become the most successful of those that have previously been presented by many artists under the influence of the poem Clarker Mura and Thomas Nasta drawings.
Santa Claus in the form of an elf on the cover of Pak magazine (PUCK), 1904
Santa costume in the interpretation Sandbloma was red [* one] , with white meadow of fur  . But the priority in the use of such a combination of flowers in the fabulous character clothes is not at all belongs to the company "Coca-Cola": much earlier Santa, dressed in this way, appeared on several covers of the humorous magazine Pak (Puck) (1902, 1904 and 1905) and On the posters advertising drinks company White Rock Beverages EN] (1915 and 1920s) [nine] [ten] .
It is believed that Santa Claus moves on the sleighs harvested by deer:
- Daeker ("rapid"),
- Dancer (Dancer),
- PRANSER ("Garding"),
- Vixen ("Grumpy"),
- Comet ("comet")
- Kupid ("Cupid")
- Donner (Dander) (from him. And Dutch. "Thunder")
- Blitzen (blissem) (from the Gall. "Lightning").
These names were first sounded in 1823 in the poem "Night before Merry Christmas". Later in American folklore, another deer was included - Rudolph, who stands at the head of the harness and has a glowing red nose. He appeared as a result of the Chicago advertising campaign of 1939.
Officers on KP are preparing for radar support of Santa Claus
In 1955, under the auspices of the North American air-space defense command (NORAD), the NORAD TRACKS SANTA has been created, during which the NORAD system monitors the fictional movements of Santa Claus, which reports in the media, by telephone hotline and on a special site.
In various traditions, Santa Claus appears accompanied by other characters, kind or evil. So, in the folklore of the Alpine region, the satellite and at the same time antipode of St. Nicholas is the Cosmatic and horned Krampus, who punishes naughty children and scares them.
- ↑ Coincident - intentionally or by chance - with the color of the drink "Coca-Cola" and its original branded lid
What does Santa Claus look like? This question is worried almost all boys and girls, in the last days of those who live in anticipation of the upcoming New Year. Santa Claus is the western analogue of our Santa Claus. He also comes to children, only for Christmas, and not for the New Year, and gives gifts. They have many differences. One of them is that it is reliably unknown which terrain to consider his homeland. If Santa Claus is from Veliky Ustyug, then his Western will be collected from the neighborhood of the North Pole, or from Lapland.
What Santa Claus looks like, everyone knows who has seen him at least once. Externally, it is very different from the familiar and close to our Santa Claus. What Santa Claus looks like and where he lives, you will learn from this article.
If Santa Claus beard grows almost to heaven, then Santa Claus is always neat and short. Santa Claus walks in boots, and Santa Claus is necessarily in boots. Santa Claus moves on foot, and his western fellow travels in the sleigh, harmful deer, each of which is their own name.
To find out what the real Santa Claus looks like, it is enough to look at any of his image. The Western New Year and Christmas Wizard has a neat jacket with a belt, but the domestic Santa Claus puts on warm Tulupe with a susak.
In addition, it is easy to find out, since Santa Claus costume looks equally equally. It is only red. But Santa Claus clothes are like blue and red. Describing how the Santa Claus hat looks like, it is worth noting that he has a cap with a neat flip of fur. Comparing with Santa Claus, it must be said that the last mandatory attribute is a fur hat.
How does Santa Claus differ from Santa Claus? Another principal moment is that the western wizard has a bad habit. Often it can be seen with the tube, which he, without ceasing, smokes.
Describing how Santa Claus and Santa Claus looks like, it is necessary to recognize that the differences between them are very significant. They allow you to easily distinguish one of the other.
What Santa Claus looks like is largely due to the history of its origin. The prototype of a good grandfather with gifts is considered to be the Christian St. Nicholas Wonderworker, who is revered by both Catholics and Orthodox. Holy Himself became famous in the first place that a lot of time and attention paid to charity. By secret gifts, he often helped poor people who had children.
Initially, St. Nicholas Day celebrated on December 6th. It was then that in European countries it was customary to give gifts on his behalf. Everything has changed during the reformation. The honors of the saints stopped encouraging. Therefore, in Germany and some neighboring countries, to distribute gifts to children became on behalf of the infant Jesus Christ. And the day of their presentation was transferred to December 24, when Christmas fairs were organized everywhere.
When the time came to counterperm, children again began to present gifts on behalf of St. Nicholas, already directly for Christmas. Only in several European countries are preserved ancient traditions. For example, in the Holland, the kids are waiting for surprises not only for Christmas, but also on December 6, on the day of St. Nicholas.
Santa Claus in the USA
It is noteworthy that it was the Dutch colonists that brought this image to a new light. It happened in the middle of the XVII century. In America, Santa Claus for the beginning settled in the settlement of the new Amsterdam, the current New York. They first began to replicate what Santa Claus looks like.
An important stage in the formation of this character is considered to be 1809, when in the book "The History of New York", written by the famous American writer Washington Irving, was told about the times of the Dutch rule, it was mentioned separately how Saint Nicholas in New Amsterdam was honored.
Transformation of St. Nicholas in Santa Claus
In 1822, in fact, the biography of this hero began in American literature. A teacher of Columbia University Clement Clark Moore wrote a Christmas fairy tale for children, he told in detail about this character, which necessarily brings gifts to children who well behaved in the past year. Shortly before the Christmas, the poem was published in the local press called "Night before Christmas, or a visit of St. Nicholas." She became very popular, repeatedly reprinted. Many and today claim that it is thanks to Clemente Muru Saint Nikolai finally transformed into a consciousness of millions in Santa Claus. Already by 1840, who Santa Claus, knew almost all the inhabitants of the new world.
Another important point: it was in this poem for the first time a fabulous wizard transport was described. It was indicated that he travels across the sky on the sleigh in which the deer was harnessed.
In 1863, the American artist Thomas was introduced by this character in the series of his cartoons on the topic of politics. It was he who presented it in the image of a hero who gives gifts to children. Santa Claus became very popular. Interest, in fact, made himself a name. In subsequent years, he released a large number of drawings intended for children in which the life of Santa Claus was presented in the fun sketches. In their works, he began to think about and in detail to prescribe life and the habit of a good wizard.
It was then that the version appeared that the birthday of Santa is the North Pole, on which he has a special dwelling. In it, he keeps accounting in a special book, which records all the bad and good deeds of children from around the world. According to these drawings, it can be clearly traced in the transformation of this image from a thick elderly elf, which it was originally represented, to a more realistic and human character, which is very similar to the modern Santa Claus.
It is believed that the present almost completely sketched this character with themselves. He was also a complete and fat man, very small growth, but at the same time with a wide beard shovel and large lush mustes.
Santa Claus in the XIX century
In general, it is interesting how Santa Claus looked in the 19th century. Initially, he was depicted in the form of a good elf, which is declared on the eve of Christmas in the cart, drawn deer. And at the same time he penetrates through the chimney.
Some historians note that the confederates were absolutely demoralized, seeing that Santa was shown on the opponent's side.
There is even a legend that Lincoln during the civil war for independence asked for Nasta to portray Santa Claus along with Northerners. His only drawback at that time was that Santa remained black and white for a long time. The famous red fur coat has appeared only in 1885 thanks to the publisher Louis Prangu. It was he who brought to America the tradition of Christmas cards, to give that was accepted in Victorian England. They were performed in the technique of color lithography, so soon there was a need to invent, what color will be the robe of the hero of our article. So he got a bright red outfit.
Development of the image of the wizard
In 1930, the image of Santa was further developed. All thanks to the advertising campaign of a large manufacturer of American refreshments. They decided on a cunning trick, so that they remember their products all year round, and not only during the Christmas.
Red and white beverage labels reminded marketers about similar Santa's robes. Illustrator Haddon Sandbl family from Chicago in the next 30 years has invariably portrayed every year a new winter wizard. He turned into a giant, similar to his neighbor Lu Prentice. It was Sandbl who painted the ninth deer in the harness, who gave the name Rudolph.
Transformation of the image
Interestingly, it was originally Santa on the illustrations of Nasta was in a serve unchangeable brown. Over time, he began to acquire reddish shades. At the same time, many researchers of the biography of this character argued that the red color itself does not carry any semantic load.
Only after the advertising campaign in which Sandblom participated, Santa's costume portrayed only red. In a semi-coat of the same kind, he was depicted on the covers of the popular American humorous magazine "Pak", which went out at the beginning of the 20th century.
Before his wards, which he brings gifts, Santa gets on the sleigh, harnessed deer. Interestingly, each of them has its own name. Initially there were eight. They were called rapid, lightning, dancer, thunder, golitzing, cupid, grumpy and comet.
In 1823, another deer named Rudolph appeared in the poem "Night before Christmas". It is noteworthy that it was he who became the most popular among all deer of Santa. He stands at the head of the harness, differs from the rest of the bright red nose.
And one more interesting fact about Santa Claus. In 1955, its image was used in the Entertainment Program of the Command of the Aircraft Defense of North America. It could be observed in the fictional movements of Santa's sleigh. This was reported by the media, you could even follow the special telephone hotline.
Santa Claus and today remains a popular character, which is regularly used in promotions, films and cartoon series.
Fabulous Santa Claus has a completely real prototype, a person who has lived more than one and a half thousand years ago. They became the Christian priest, the bishop of the city of the world, located in the territory of modern Turkey. This subsequently canonized character was famous for his good deeds, in particular, the gifts that he preferred to leave imperceptibly, not posted his blessings.
Since the relics of St. Nicholas have survived to the present day, scientists were able to show how he looked at a lifetime. It was a man of low growth with a short gray beard. Interestingly, the saint had a broken nose. The image is little similar in now everywhere replicated the image of the funny healthy Santa, isn't it?
A character closest to modern understanding appears thanks to the artist Thomas Nasta. This American cartoonist has become famous thanks to a series of humorous drawings depicting the life and adventures of Santa Claus. In the first drawings, Nasta - Santa looks more like a good-natured elderly elf in a fur suit. Gradually coming up and transmitting details of the Fairy Tale Santa Claus, inspired by the poem of Clement Moore, the artist depicts the scenes, where his hero is surrounded by children, rides on a deer harness, preparing gifts.
Gradually, the image of Santa undergoes changes. It is converted from an old elf in a major healthy with ruddy cheeks and a snow-white lush beard. Fur suit is replaced by a serrated fur coat. The mandatory attribute of Santa becomes a big bag with gifts. Here are just the pictures of NASTs are made exclusively in the achromatic range. And Santa Claus he has black and white. Although at the end of the XIX century, color lithographic postcards are becoming popular, which are used as congratulations on Christmas.
Original Santa's clothing has a brown color, but gradually it is replaced by a reddish tint. And in the Coca-Cola advertising, we have a bright red color of fur coats and caps. Yes, yes, it is thanks to the active advertisement of Coca-Cola in the consciousness of people the red color of Santa Claus was fixed. We list the main features of the appearance of Santa Claus:
- lush white beard and mustache;
- rosy cheeks;
- Red semi-coat and pants, broken with white fur;
- the serve is often rejected with a leather belt;
- a pointed red hat, also a broken fur, with white fur pomphon;
- High boots, often fur;
- Volumetric bag with gifts.
The mandatory satellites of Santa Claus are his friends - deer, who are carrying Santa's sleigh, delivering it to every home. These deer nine - and everyone has its own name. Deer, naturally, is also not simple: they know how to move through the air.
In Russia, it is often possible to see a "averaged image", including the features and Santa Claus and Santa Claus. This character can be closed in a long fur coat, boots - and a pointed hat.
Gradually coming up with the details of Santa's life, his first "biographer and portraitist" Thomas is defined as the main place of residence of his hero North Pole. And this is quite logical and explained, since the favorite children's character appears in winter, in the height of frosts in warm fur coat and on the sleigh. So, his journey should begin in the cold edges.
At the same time, at the beginning of the last century, when the formation of the image of Santa, the North Pole is still mysterious and unexplored lands, where the eternal cold reigns. So there is the place for the habitat of the wizard.
Santa Claus receives another attribute - a special book where he records good and bad actions of children to subsequently decide who and what gifts to bring. Subsequently, Santa receives a new, more specific "residence". It is now believed that he lives in Lapland, and specifically - in the city of Rovaniemi, where enterprising Finns built a whole residence of Santa Claus. All year round thousands of tourists come to the village of Joulupukka (so in Finland they call the Christmas grandfather). In addition, it is here that letters are sent, which kids write Santa.
Who is Santa Claus - what looks like, where it is, what does the wife do, the differences from Santa Claus
All children of Western Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States and some other countries know who Santa Claus is. On behalf of this kind character, kids receive Christmas gifts. He has a real historical prototype. The modern appearance of Santa Claus has very interesting details: appearance, occupation, assistants and more.
Is there Santa Claus?
In many countries there are beliefs, fairy tales and legends about good wizards who give the kids to Christmas or New Year's gifts. Santa Claus is one of them. He is considered a fictional character who brings gifts to children (Catholics, Protestants and some other branches of Christianity) for Christmas. However, he has a very real historical prototype, which occurred as a way to give gifts and some other details.
History of Santa Claus
The researchers have the exact place of origin of Santa Claus. They are considered the ancient city of Patars, which is located in Malaya Asia, Likia. In the III century, a baby named Nicholas appeared in the family of wealthy parents. Later he became a bishop in the city of the world. According to the ancient Scriptures, Bishop Nikolai (who is one of the most revered saints in Christianity) distributed coins and treats to poor people, showed sincere love for his parishioners. That is, considering how many years Santa Claus can assume a number of more seven hundred years.
A little later in Western Europe began to celebrate St. Nicholas Day on December 6, during which it was customary to give gifts to the kids from his behalf. During the period of church reforms, it was ordered to celebrate all Christians to celebrate Christmas and gifts to children on behalf of the Baby of Jesus. Later, during the period of counter-reformation, the gifts began to be made again from St. Nicholas, but no longer on the day of his celebration, but for birth.
The modern history of Santa Claus (whose name is translated as "Saint Nicholas") as follows:
- He became a good merry-old old man after writing and publication in 1822 the Poem "Parish of St. Nicholas" by the American professor of Eastern literature Clement Clark Murom. Initially, the poem was intended for the children of a scientist, but very much like the general public.
- Modern image of the wizard first depicted a cartoonist Thomas, which completed illustrators of the Coca-Cola brand advertising.
What does Santa Claus look like?
It has already been said that modern Santa Claus differs from his Christian Pre-Crack:
- In the poem Moore, he was represented by the fastened good elf, living in the North Pole along with his assistants.
- Detail of the image has developed illustrator Thomas present for the magazine "Harper's" in 1860-1880. He dressed him in a fur coat and pants, warm cap and supplied a long white beard.
- Modern clothing Santa Claus appeared thanks to the Coca-Cola brand advertising campaign, the main character of which Santa Claus was chosen. The artist H. Sandbl depicted it in the clothes of corporate colors: red caftan, pants and cap with white edge. In the hands of Santa, a bottle of drink was conquered.
Where is Santa Claus?
All over the world there are fierce disputes for the place where Santa lives. There are two most popular versions:
- At one of them, the residence of the Christmas Wizard is the North Pole, Alaska, North Pole. There he holds the whole year, preparing for the holiday, and then in one night gives the gifts of all children.
- Other children who know who Santa Claus is convinced that the place of his stay is Finland. In this country, a special service was even officially created, the responsibility of which it comes to respond to children's letters on behalf of Santa, which several hundred thousand comes annually.
What does Santa Claus do?
Since the small years, Western European and American children love Santa Claus and know well who he is:
- This character in Christmas night gives gifts to the kids who behaved well during the year. It penetrates the house through the chimney and leaves the scrolls and boxes under the Christmas tree or in special gift socks, woven on the fireplace. Those who behaved badly, he can pour aside ash or putting roses.
- For one Christmas night with the help of magic, he managed to congratulate all the children on the globe.
- During the rest of the year, Santa ensures that his assistants will have to create and pack all gifts.
- In addition, the wizard can walk in the mountains and meadows, collecting mushrooms and berries, catch fish.
- Many kids believe that Santa helps the gnomes, workers on the mines, mining gold.
Wife Santa Claus
Many children know who Santa Claus is, but not everyone is aware that the Western Wizard has a wife - Mrs. Santa Claus. The first mention of it appeared in 1849, with the release of small novels "Christmas Legend" of the writer James Riza. The following facts are known about Mrs.
- Their acquaintance happened a long time ago. Approximately when only the first hills appeared on the site of the family residence.
- This kind woman is watching the whole year for the order in the house and for the assistants - elves, controlling that they correctly pack gifts for children.
- Mrs. Santa Claus prepares very tasty. Her crown dishes are gingerbread and beloved christmas porridge Santa. From the drinks at the Magic House, Mulled wine and grog are best obtained.
Santa Claus and Santa Claus - the difference
Although the prototype of two good winter wizards is St. Nicholas, the difference between Santa Claus and Santa Claus is very significant:
- Santa is represented by a tightly melted little old old man. Santa Claus is a real state-like Giant.
- Differences in them and clothing. Oriental wizard dressed in a long fur coat, warm hat, boots and mittens of red, white or blue colors. The Western Wizard is dressed according to the American climate in pants, short caftan with a thick strap and cap. Clothes color: red and white.
- Santa Claus has a long beard and a magic crystal staff, as well as a bag with gifts. Santa's beard is much shorter, often it is depicted in round glasses and with a bag of gifts.
- Santa Claus's assistant is his granddaughter - Snow Maiden, beauty with a long oblique. Claus is accompanied by deer and helped elves.
Assistants Santa Claus.
Congratulate babies throughout the land with a holiday one wizard would not be able to be, so there are those who help Santa Claus. These include:
- Mentioned above Mrs. Santa Claus.
- Low-minded mythical hardworking characters - elves living in the residence of the wizard and working at the toy factory.
- Getting to the kids Santa Santa Claus on the magical sleigh, in which 9 deer are harnessed, each of whom has its own name and character.
Elf Santa Claus
With the popularization and commercialization of the image of a winter wizard began to appear other Christmas characters to which the elves of Santa:
- For the first time they are mentioned in the book "Christmas elves" of the writer Louise May Okott, who remained unnecessary.
- The American magazine Godey's Lady's Book is popularized by the Heroes of His Christmas Covers.
- The peak of the popularity of the characters falls at the end of the 19th century and the release of the book Austin Thompson "Santa Claus House, a Christmas fabulous show for Saturday Schools."
In all works, the elves appear in the following way:
- These are small, often old, little men in red and green clothes with caps on the head. Often they have ringing bubones.
- Elves live together with the main wizard and work in the toy workshop, manufacturing gifts for babies all year.
- They are distinguished by a good temper, but sometimes they can lean and moderate together.
Deer at Santa Claus
All kids on the planet who know who this is such Santa Claus, love and his famous deer assistants. They blame in magic flying sleigh and deliver christmas christmas symbol to each house to have time to dissemble all gifts. All on hearing and names of deer Santa Claus, who were first described in 1823 in the poem "Night before Christmas":
- Daeker ("rapid");
- Dancer ("Dancer");
- PRANSER ("Garding");
- Vixen ("Grumpy");
- Donner (Thunder);
- Blitzen ("Lightning").
In 1939, thanks to another successful advertising campaign, the Montgomery Ward supermarket chains, another deer named Rudolph appeared. He got up to the head of the harness and recognized as the most popular hero. The honors from Rudolph is his magic glowing red nose, which serves as a pavement with a lantern and helps the Christmas carriage not to get lost even in the most butter.
How to write a letter Santa Claus?
To get a cherished gift for Christmas, children need not only to lead themselves all year, but also try to independently write a letter to Santa Claus, in which you can specify:
- All your good things and deeds in the outgoing year.
- Describe the desired gift for yourself and other family members.
- Try to draw beautiful drawings, stick stickers or invest small crafts as a reply gift Santa.
- After all, the efforts are to carefully seal the envelope and specify their address and address of the wizard residence, which is supposed to deliver the letter.
When does Santa Claus come?
On the eastern part of Europe and in the CIS countries, it is more common to celebrate the New Year, in which Santa Claus is replaced by the usual Santa Claus, which gives gifts on the night of December 31 to January 1. In America and Western Europe, Christian Christmas is considered the most popular holiday, the date of which is December 25th. On the night before this day and comes a good wizard to give the obedient kids and punish baldenses. That is, New Year's Santa Claus is a combination of Eastern and Western traditions, which is found only in separate families.
How does Santa Claus spread gifts?
Finding out what Santa Claus rides and who helps him, it is worthwhile to tell about how the wizard can get into the house and deliver the necessary gifts:
- In the days of St. Nicholas, people believed that he would give their coins to the poor through the chimney. Santa penetrates the house into the fireplace pipe or oven with its magic, decreasing in size.
- Where there is no such pipe, the children try to create an artificial fireplace or leave a slightly ajar window so that the wizard is accurately open to the house.
Where is Santa Claus puts gifts?
Returning to the one who is such Santa Claus, and who is his prototype, you can explain the placement of Christmas gifts:
- In ancient times, the fireplace and socks were often left near the fire fire, therefore Santa's gifts, descending in chimney, often turned out to be in them.
- Hence the tradition to hang on the present or improvised fireplace colorful socks with the names of all family members as a place of storage of gifts.
Waking up by the New Year or Christmas in the morning, the kids of the whole world are first of all rush to the decorated Christmas tree or festive socks, woven by the fireplace, to find gifts with joyful screams ...
What does Santa Claus look like, in which country lives, does he have a family? These questions are worried not only by children, but also adults, with all the souls of those who want to continue to believe in a beautiful New Year's fairy tale.
Who was actually Saint Nicholas
It is interesting to know that the prototype of the current Santa Claus was a really existing historical character. Saint Nicholas, nicknamed Mirlykih, in fact was a Christian bishop of the city of Worlds in Likia (modern Turkey). He lived in the IV century and became famous for charity and good deeds.
There are many legends about it. So, having learned that one of the residents of the city was so impacted that she was going to sell three daughters in the public house, Saint Nikolai secretly threw the three bags, full gold at the window of this person at night. According to another belief, he miraculously revived three children killed and sharpened in a barrel. Therefore, he is considered a defender of the kids, the patron saint of lost and innocent, and also protects in travels of travelers and sailors.
In Russia, this saint is also very honored. It is called the ashist, or the Wonderworker.
Appearance of St. Nicholas
After studying the relics of Saint Nicholas with the permission of the Vatican, scientists of Britain with the help of computer technologies recreated the appearance of this saint. Thanks to them, it became more reliably known how "Santa Claus" looks like, which really existed.
Saint Nicholas was low growth - 168 centimeters, had olive skin, short gray beard, dark-brown eyes and broken nose. There are not so many common features with a modern fabulous hero bringing christmas gifts ...
Why does Santa Claus bring gifts to Christmas?
Santa Claus became a Christmas character far from immediately. Initially, in Europe, gifts for children were given on December 6 - on the day of reverending St. Nicholas. However, during the Reformation period, this tradition has undergone change. The character of the children began to be considered a babe of Christ, and the holiday, when it happened, was transferred to the eve of Catholic Christmas.
After the victory of counter-processing gifts, children again began to bring Saint Nicholas, but still for Christmas, at the end of December. Although, for example, in the Netherlands this saint (here is the name of Sinterklaas), sometimes it pleases the surprises of babies on both holidays.
History of Santa Claus in America
The English Puritans, the first to develop the North American continent, did not celebrate Christmas holidays at all. The history of Santa Claus on these lands begins from the middle of the 17th century, when the Dutch colonists were founded by the settlement of the new Amsterdam (subsequently became New York).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the American writer Washington Irving was written "History of New York", in which he mentioned the custom of honoring in the new Amsterdam of St. Nicholas. In the development of this topic, after 14 years, the book "Night before Christmas, or the visit of St. Nicholas" came out from under the pen of Clement Moore. In it, he first described what Santa Claus looks like, how he travels around the sky on a deer harness and what happens when he on Christmas Eve visits at home with gifts.
This poem significantly affected the idea of Santa Claus in the entire English-speaking world. And today she is one of the most beloved American fairy tales.
It was from this time that the image of a character, distributing gifts, finally ceased to be associated with the saints.
What does santa claus look like
In the composition of Clement Moore Santa Claus appears in the image of a cheerful elf with a thick belt, smoking the phone and loving tasty food. The artist-cartoonist Thomas Nastu was the first to fulfill the desire of adults and children to find out what this fabulous hero looks like. Twenty-four years he depicted Santa Claus on the christmas cover of the weekly edition of Harpers Wickley, which was very popular. However, Santa Claus performed by Nasta was black and white, albeit a fur coat, and a wide belt, and a headdress, and sparkling boots were almost the same as we used to see them now.
I painted the folly grandfather's fur coat in the late 19th century Publisher Louis Prang, who was first in America began to produce colored lithographic greeting cards for Christmas.
In 1930, the American company "Coca-Cola", wanting their drinks to enjoy the same popularity and winter, and in the summer, included Santa Claus to his advertising campaign. The work was commissioned by the Chicago artist Haddon Sandcloma. For thirty years, he created images of the "Christmas Grandfather", which brings gifts to children. The prototype of Santa Claus, today the world famous for the whole world, served as a friend and neighbor of the artist, Lou Prentice.
The images where Santa Claus looked no longer an elf, but a kind smiling giant, had to like people. The Rudolph and Rudolph were well perceived - invented by the artist of the new, ninth deer in Santa's harness.
Does Santa Claus have a family?
Often you can hear a question that does not give rest to many: "Santa Claus family exists, or does the" Christmas grandfather "live alone?"
The answer to it is covered with a curtain of secrecy. According to the classic Catholic tradition, the "historical" Santa Claus, that is, Saint Nicholas, was a clergyman, that is, a definitely family did not have. But as for the current fabulous character, they do not even exclude the fact that he may well be in a happy marriage.
According to the same way, for the first time, the information about Mrs. Claus appeared on the pages of the American Magazine "Arfrist" in 1881. According to another version, for eight years later, this lady was invented by the writer Catherine Lee Bates, who devoted to her a funny song.
Anyway, but, according to the most common version, the wife of Santa Claus is an ordinary human woman. Her "fabulous age" is about sixty years. Mrs. Claus's real name is not known - some sources name is Her Goodie, others - Wilhelmina, Third - Jessica ... She is a chubby, merry and very sociable, almost all the time wears a red dress, because it loves this color, puts on glasses, and also Spins gray hair into a beam on the back of the head. She often bakes delicious buns and likes to watch the elves - the faithful assistants of Santa Claus - make toys for children's gifts. It is said that one day, when Santa Claus became very sick just on the eve of the Christmas holidays, Mrs. Claus put on his fur coat, pressed the artificial beard and went to deliver gifts for kids herself.
Where does Santa Claus live?
Cold "Santa Claus Country" - Lapland, the kingdom of eternal snow and ice - in fact the northern province of Finland. However, the residence of the "Christmas grandfather" there really exists! She is in the capital of the province - Rovaniemi.
A kind gray-breeding gentleman in red takes guests here all year round. From Central Mail Santa Claus, you can send a postcard to any corner of the world. And the dreams of adults and children about the holiday come to life in a fabulous Santa Park and a Christmas tree.
Santa Claus and Santa Claus
The image of Santa Claus, so popular in telecasts and advertising, does not come down from our screens and shop windows in the December-January days. Often, children simply identify Santa Claus with the original Slavic Grandfather Frost. However, in addition to the fact that in the winter holidays both of these fabulous characters bring gifts, they don't have much in common, as it may seem at first glance.
So what is the difference between Santa Claus from Santa Claus? First of all, the fact that the latter does not have nothing to do with the Saint Nicholas. The history of our Santa Claus is rooted by the folklore of the eastern Slavs. There it is represented in the image of a fabulous heter, a giant, a molding river and lake by frost and ice.
Over time, the image of Claus has changed. From a terrible harsh character, he gradually turned into a good and fair grandfather, who gave birth to children. The company traditionally constitutes granddaughter, cute and beloved by all the Snow Maiden.
The image of Santa Claus
Externally, Santa Claus also looks differently - not exactly what Santa Claus looks like. The photo below allows you to fully submit these differences.
Grandfather Frost Mulch and strong, impressive growth, wears a salad white beard. He dressed in a long fur coat until the earth itself, wearing a boyars hat on his head, on the legs - the felt boots. He does not wear glasses. Unlike Santa Claus, a means of movement of Santa Claus - not fabulous deer, but the Russian equestrian troika. In the house, it penetrates at all through the fireplace, but an inexplicable magical way inherent in a magical creature. And he never puts gifts in the sock, preferring them to hide them under the branches of the tree.
The fact that these fabulous characters are different, in no way means that one of them is better, but someone worse. It's just not necessary to forget that in winter holidays on a par with the famous for the whole world of Santa Claus, the magnifier marchs in its possessions and our grandfather Frost, with the ease carrying a huge bag with gifts ...